Caddisfly Larvae And Cases

Ocelli present or absent. Front tibiae with 1 spur or none. Members of this group are widely distributed and fairly common. Larvae occur in ponds and streams. Cases made by the last instar are often purse-shaped, with both ends open. FINGER-NET CADDISFLIES Family Philopotamidae Identification Usually brownish, with gray or blackish wings, and 6-9 mm. 5th segment of maxillary palps 2 or 3 times as long as 4th. Larvae live in rapid streams, where they construct...

Protura And Thysanura

Identification Minute whitish insects, 0.6-1.5 mm. Eyes, wings, cerci, and antennae lacking. Front legs carried in an elevated position like antennae. Abdomen of adult 12-segmented, with a pair of short styli (fingerlike processes) on each of the 3 basal segments. Metamorphosis simple. Similar orders Other minute wingless insects have less than 12 abdominal segments, and either have antennae or lack styli on the 3 basal abdominal segments. Immature stages Similar to adult stage, but with fewer...

Checkered Beetles Family Cleridaep 165

Often marked with red, orange, yellow, or blue pronotum narrower than FW body and legs with erect pubescence tarsi 5-5-5. Fmoclerus ichneumoneus (Fabricius) e. U.S. DERMESTID BEETLES, Family Dermestidae p. 164 Elongate to broadly oval, often with scales or hair forming patterns antennae short and clubbed tarsi 5-5-5. CARPET BEETLE, Anthrenus scrophulariae (Linn.) N. Amer. SOFT-WINGED FLOWER BEETLES, Family Malachiidae p. 164 Body soft and wedge-shaped, FW broad toward rear antennae serrate...

BARK or Engraver Beetles and Ambrosia Beetles

Identification Elongate, cylindrical. Head visible dorsally or concealed, narrower than pronotum. Tarsi short, 1st segment not elongate. Antennae elbowed and clubbed. Brownish to black. 1-9 (mostly 1-3) mm. Nearly all scolytids bore into bark or wood, both as larvae and as adults. Adults spend most of their lives in their burrows, leaving them only long enough to find a new host. Bark or engraver beetles burrow just under the bark ambrosia beetles burrow into the heartwood and feed on fungi in...

Jumping Ground Bugs

Families Dipsocoridae and Schizopteridae Identification Length 1-2 mm. Antennae 4-segmented, the 2 basal segments short and stout, and the 2 apical segments long and slender. Ocelli present. Tarsi and beak 3-segmented. Dipsocoridae eyes project outward, not overlapping front edges of pronotum head and tibiae with strong bristles. Schizopteridae eyes project outward and backward, overlapping front edges of pronotum head and tibiae without strong bristles. These bugs occur on the ground in moist...

Characters Of Sphecid Wasps

Oxybelini are 10 mm. or less, stout-bodied, and dark-colored the propodeum bears a long spine, or forked process, and the base of the cubital vein in the front wing is weak or absent they nest in sandy areas and provision their nests with flies. Pronotum short, collarlike, with a rounded lobe on each side that does not reach tegulae. Body usually quite hairy, the body hairs branched or plumose. 1st segment of hind tarsi generally enlarged and flattened. This is a large group, with more than...

Chelicerate Arthropods Subphylum Chelicerata

Usually 6 pairs of appendages 1st pair (chelicerae) jawlike or fanglike 2nd pair (pedipalps) somewhat feelerlike (sometimes clawlike, rarely leglike) remaining pairs leglike. Antennae absent. Usually 2 body regions, cephalothorax (bearing the appendages) and abdomen. Legs often with an extra segment (patella) between femur and tibia. SEA SPIDERS Class Pycnogonida Not illus. Identification Long-legged, spiderlike marine animals, with a small cephalothorax (head and thorax) and a very small...

Suborder Tubulifera

Terminal abdominal segment tubular in both sexes. 9 without an ovipositor. FW when present veinless or with a short median vein. Antennae with 4-8 (usually 8) segments. TUBE-TAILED THRIPS Family Phloeothripidae Identification By the characters of the suborder. This is a large group, and its members vary in habits. Some are plant feeders and are often abundant on vegetation, some are predaceous, and many feed on fungus spores.

Pleasing Fungus Beetle

Predaceous on scolytids or scale insects (pp. 204, 137). Species of Conotelus (found in flowers of morning glory) resemble rove beetles but have clubbed antennae. Larval habits are similar to those of adults. FLAT GRAIN BEETLES Family Silvanidae Identification Elongate, rather flattened. Antennal club 3-segmented, 3rd segment shorter than 2nd. Tarsi 5-5-5, never lobed. 1-5 mm. Some silvanids occur under bark, others in stored plant materials (fruit, grain, meal, and flour). The most important...

Caddisflies Order Trichoptera

Identification Slender, elongate, mothlike insects. 1.5-25.0 mm. Antennae long and threadlike, usually as long as body or longer. 4 membranous wings (wings vestigial or absent in 9 of a few species) HW a little shorter than FW, the wings (especially FW) hairy wings held rooflike over body at rest wing venation rather generalized, with M usually 4-branched in FW and 3-branched in HW, and Cu 3-branched wings generally with a small spot in fork of R4+5. Mouth parts reduced, best described as...

Marsh Beetle

Soil along the margins of streams, or are aquatic. Their habits are not well known. LONG-TOED WATER BEETLES Family Dryopidae Identification Body oval or elongate-oval. Legs very long, strongly developed, claws large. Antennae short, most segments broader than long, usually concealed. Pubescence dense, low-lying, or absent. Front coxae transverse. Black, brown or dull gray. 1-8 mm. These beetles are usually found on partly submerged sticks and stones in moving water or riffle areas of streams....

Suborder Nematocera

Antennae apparently with 6 or more segments (3rd subdivided), plumose in some males. Wing venation varies from complete (with R 5-branched) to greatly reduced. R2+3 often forked (never forked in other suborders). Mostly slender, soft-bodied, midgelike, with relatively long legs and antennae. Larvae usually aquatic or living in moist soil, the nonaquatic larvae generally being gall makers. CRANE FLIES Family Tipulidae Identification Mosquitolike, with very long legs. Mesonotum with a V-shaped...

Scorpionflies and Their Allies Order Mecoptera

Identification Small to medium-sized. Body usually slender and relatively soft. Long-faced. Mouth parts chewing, at end of a long snoutlike structure. 4 membranous wings (wings rarely absent or vestigial) long and narrow, HW about same size as FW, with rather generalized venation but with extra cross veins wings often spotted or transversely banded. Legs usually long, slender, the tarsi 5-segmented, with 1 or 2 claws. Antennae threadlike, about half body length. Metamorphosis complete. Similar...

Biddies

Identification Large brownish to blackish dragonflies with yellowish markings. No brace vein. Ovipositor of 9 conspicuous. Biddies resemble river skimmers (.Macromia, family Macromi-idae), but have a slightly different wing venation (compare illustrations, pp. 71 and 73). The compound eyes are slightly separated on dorsal side of head or meet at a single point only. A small group, and its members are not common. They occur chiefly along small woodland streams. Head of Darner Labium of Darner...

Deathwatch Beetles

Antennal club 3- or 4-segmented, loose. 2-20 mm. (1 western species to 2 in.). Bostrichids are wood borers, and attack living trees, dead twigs and branches, or dry seasoned timber. The adults of one unusual western species bore into the lead sheathing of telephone cables, allowing moisture to enter the cable and causing a short circuit this insect, Scobicia declivis (LeConte), is called the Short-circuit Beetle (normally lives in wood and does not feed when it bores into...

Ampulicid Wasp

Toward the front and somewhat necklike. Mesosternum with a forked process posteriorly. Parapsidal sutures distinct. Ampulicids are rather rare. Nests are built in various protected situations, and are provisioned with immature cockroaches. SPHECID WASPS Family Sphecidae See also PL 16 Identification Pronotum short and collarlike. Mesosternum without a forked process posteriorly. Parapsidal sutures indistinct or absent. This large family contains many common wasps. There are 9 subfamilies,...

Sackbearers And Epiplemid Moths 233

Lowish or brownish with dark lines or spots. Frenulum small or vestigial 2 rarely J) anal veins in HW. Sc and Rs in HW not connected by a cross vein. Larvae of these moths construct portable cases of leaves. Three species (none common) occur in the U.S. 2 in the East and 1 in Arizona. One eastern species has apex of the front wing somewhat sickle-shaped, and the other has distal margin of the front wing toothed or scalloped. Identification Grayish or yellowish, with a wingspread of about 20 mm....

Psyllids Whiteflies Aphids and Scale Insects Suborder Sternorrhyncha

Tarsi 1- or 2-segmented (legs rarely lacking). Antennae long and threadlike (rarely absent). Mostly rather inactive insects. PSYLLIDS Family Psyllidae See also PL 4 Identification FW membranous or thickened. Wings usually held roojlike over body at rest. Tarsi 2-segmented. Antennae 10-segmented. Active jumping insects, 2-5 mm. Most psyllids are free-living and feed on a variety of plants. A few are gall makers, generally forming galls on hackberry leaves. Nymphs are oval and flat and look very...

Webspinning And Other Sawflies 315

Larvae are external feeders on elm, hickory, and staminate flowers of pine or bore in new pine shoots. WEB-SPINNING and LEAF-ROLLING SAWFLIES Family Pamphiliidae Identification Relatively stout-bodied, 15 mm. or less, and usually brightly colored. Antennae long and slender, with 13 or more similar segments. FW with an intercostal vein, 2 marginal cells, and 2 transverse median veins. Pamphiliids are not common. Larvae roll up leaves, tie them with silk, and feed inside the...

Info

CRUSTACEANS Class Crustacea Identification Appendages vary in number, but 2 pairs of antennae (1 pair may be quite small), a pair of appendages on each segment of cephalothorax (head and thorax) and sometimes on each abdominal segment usually at least 5 pairs of leglike appendages. 2 body regions generally 'distinct (cephalothorax and abdomen), the cephalothorax often with a hardened covering (carapace). Mostly aquatic, gill-breathing. Two major groups of crustaceans are usually recognized,...

Microlepidoptera

Size variable but usually with a wingspread of 20 mm. or less. Wing shape variable, sometimes relatively broad, sometimes narrow and pointed apically. Tibial spurs generally long. Many, especially narrow-winged forms, with a fringe of long hairs on anal margin of HW. Wing venation variable but broad-winged forms usually with 2 anal veins in FW and 3 in HW. This is a large group making up about half of the order identification of many is often difficult. The families of Microlepidoptera are...

Jugate Moths Suborder Jugatae

Venation in FW and HW similar, Rs in HW with as many branches as in FW. No frenulum, the wings on each side united by a jugum (a fingerlike lobe at base of FW). This is a small group, with about 30 N. American species. Most are quite rare. ERIOCRANIID MOTHS Family Eriocraniidae Not illus. Identification Wingspread 12 mm. or less. Maxillary palps well developed, 5-segmented. Mandibles vestigial. Middle tibiae with 1 spur. Sc in FW forked near its tip. Eriocraniids are somewhat similar to clothes...

Mounting and Preserving Insects

Most insects are preserved dry, normally on pins, and once dry will keep indefinitely. Soft-bodied insects must be preserved in liquids, since they shrivel or become distorted if preserved dry. Minute insects that are hard-bodied may be mounted (dry) on points, but many must be mounted on microscope slides for detailed study. Insects that are preserved dry should be pinned or mounted as soon as possible after they are collected if allowed to dry first they become very brittle and may be broken...

Wing Venation In Hymenoptera 313

Wing Venation Dictyoptera

Wing venational terminology in Hymenoptera. VEINS ay anal ac, accessory axv, axillary bv, basal c, costal cu, cubital dt discoidal ic, intercostal mdv, median mv, marginal rv, recurrent scv, subcostal sd, subdiscoidal st, stigma tc, transverse costal tcb, transverse cubitals tl, transverse lanceolate tm, transverse median trd, transverse marginal. CELLS A, anal AP, apical AX, axillary C, costal D, discoidal L, lanceolate MC, marginal MDy median SM, submarginal SMD, submedian. The basal cells in...

Dobsonflies Fishflies and Alderflies Suborder Megaloptera

Dobsonfly Corydalidae Hellgrammite

Anal area of HW folded fan-wise at rest. Larvae aquatic. DOBSONFLIES and FISHFLIES Family Corydalidae Identification Large soft-bodied insects with a rather fluttery DOBSONFLIES, FISHFLIES, ALDERFLIES 141 flight generally found near streams. Length usually 1 in. or more. Ocelli present. 4th tarsal segment cylindrical. Larvae occur in streams, generally under stones. Dobsonflies (Corydalus in the East and Southwest, Dysmicohermes in the West) are large insects...

Shorthorned Bugs Suborder Cryptocerata

Antennae short and usually concealed in grooves on ventral side of head. Ocelli generally absent. Aquatic or shore-inhabiting. Identification Elongate-oval, aquatic, usually 12 mm. or less. Dorsal surface of body flattened, with narrow dark crosslines. Front legs short, tarsi 1-segmented and scoop-shaped. Hind legs elongate and functioning as oars. Water boatmen are common insects in ponds. A few occur in streams, and a few are found in the brackish water of pools along

Minute Brown Scavenger Beetles

Identification Shape distinctive FW oval, widest at middle, pronotum and head progressively narrower, pronotum often nearly circular from above. FW with distinct rows of punctures. Antennal club 2- or 3-segmented, loose. Brown or black. Tarsi slender, 3-3-3, 2-3-3, or 2-2-3. 1-3 mm. These beetles are fairly common and are usually associated with moldy material. Both adults and larvae occur in rotting vegetation, woodpiles, mammal nests, and sometimes on flowers they are also found in...

Bethylid

Venation reduced. Abdomen 6- or 7-segmented. Bethylids are generally 8 mm. or less and are seldom encountered. Larvae are parasites of other insect larvae, especially Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. A few bethylids will sting. Females of many species are wingless and antlike. Identification Small black insects with a reduced wing venation. Antennae 10-segmented, rising low on face, and not distinctly elbowed. HW with a jugal lobe. Front tarsi of often pincerlike....

Issid Planthoppers Family Issidae

Identification Body not particularly wedge-shaped. FW often short, the costal area without numerous cross veins. Hind tibiae with spines on sides in addition to apical ones. Many species in this group are short-winged and some have a weevil-like snout. FULGORID PLANTHOPPERS Family Fulgoridae Not illus. Identification Anal area of HW with many cross veins such cross veins are lacking in remaining families . This group includes some of our largest planthoppers, but they are not very common. Most...

Suborder Cyclorrhapha

Rs 2-branched. Frontal suture absent Aschiza or present Schizophora . SPEAR-WINGED FLIES Family Lonchopteridae Identification Slender, yellowish to brownish, 2-5 mm. Wings pointed at apex and without cross veins except at base. These flies are generally found in moist shady or grassy places, and are fairly common. Larvae occur in decaying vegetation. This family is a small one. Our 4 species belong to the genus Lonchoptera. Identification Small to minute, usually...

Common Bristletails

Immature stages Similar to adult stage. Habits Most species occur in leaf litter, under bark and stones, or in debris some species may be found in buildings. Importance A few sometimes are pests in houses. Classification Two suborders, Ectognatha and Entognatha, differing in the number of terminal abdominal appendages and the segmentation of the tarsi. Many authors give these groups order rank, the Thysanura including only the Ectognatha and the Entognatha being placed in the order Diplura. No....

Click Beetles

Hind margin of prosternum with a rounded lobe. Black or brown. 7.5-8.5 mm. Two very rare species of cerophytids occur in the U.S., one in the East and the other in California they live under bark and in rotting wood. CEBRIONID BEETLES Family Cebrionidae Identification Body elongate, broadest at base of FW. Mandibles large, thin, projecting forward in front of head. Abdomen 6-segmented. Brownish, with long, dense, suberect pubescence. 15-25 mm. Most of the 17 species of cebrionids in the...

Wrinkled Bark Beetle

These beetles are considered to be primitive members of the Adephaga. WRINKLED BARK BEETLES Family Rhysodidae Identification Shape distinctive elongate-slender, body widest near apex of FW, tapering anteriorly. Antennae short, headlike. Pronotum grooved. FW striate. Dorsal surface black or reddish, shiny. 5-8 mm. Larvae of these beetles bore beneath bark of decaying beech, ash, elm, and pine. Adults are found beneath bark, and often hibernate in groups. Superfamily Caraboidea...

Parasitic Hymenoptera Ants Wasps and Bees Suborder Apocrita

Base of abdomen constricted, sometimes distinctly stalked. Thorax contains a 4th segment, the propodeum actually the basal abdominal segment, fused to thorax . Wings without an accessory vein and HW with not more than 2 basal cells venation in some minute forms greatly reduced, almost lacking. Many Apocrita larvae live as parasites in or on bodies of other insects or spiders, and many are plant feeders. Parasitic forms generally lay their eggs on, in, or near body of the host many have a long...

Barkgnawing And Checkered Beetles 165

Checkered Beetles

And FW closely joined, margins of pronotum and FW broadly flattened. Tarsi 5-5-5, 1st segment very short. Antennae clubbed, the club segments often extended laterally. Black, brown, blue, or metallic green. 6-20 mm. Adults and larvae of this small family normally live under bark, in fungi, and in dry vegetable matter One species is common in granaries, where larvae and adults feed on other insects or on damaged grain. CHECKERED BEETLES Family Cleridae See also Pl. 5 Identification Body...

Pygmy Mole Cricket

Sound-producing apparatus of a Long-horned Grasshopper Sound-producing apparatus of a Long-horned Grasshopper Grasshopperlike jumping insects, with hind femora more or less enlarged. Tarsi with 3 or fewer segments. Antennae relatively short. Tympana eardrums usually present on sides of 1st abdominal segment. Ovipositor short. PYGMY MOLE CRICKETS Family Tridactylidae Identification Length 10 mm. or less. Front tibiae enlarged and

The Structure of Insects

A knowledge of insect structure is essential to understanding descriptions and the characters distinguishing different groups. The following account is rather brief more information is given in the accounts of some of the insect orders. General Structure. The body of an insect is segmented and more or less elongated. The segments are grouped in 3 body regions, the head, thorax, and abdomen. The head bears the eyes, antennae, and mouth parts the thorax bears the legs and wings the abdomen...

The Growth and Development of Insects

Insect eggs differ in shape and color, and some are ornamented with ridges, spines, or other processes. Most insects lay their eggs in a situation where the young on hatching will have conditions suitable for development. Many lay their eggs in characteristic masses, and a few cover their eggs with a protective material of some sort. The eggs of some insects develop internally, and the young are born alive. Insect eggs ordinarily develop only if they have been fertilized but some undergo...