Brushfooted Butterfliessee also PI

Family Nymphalidae

Identification: Variable in size and color. Front legs greatly reduced. FW relatively broad and triangular, with R 5-branched, Cu appearing 3-branched, and 3A lacking. HW with 2 anal veins, humeral vein straight or bent toward wing tip, and discal cell open or closed by a weak vein. No veins greatly swollen at base.

This is the largest family of Papilionoidea, and includes many common species; only a few can be mentioned here. Fritillaries (Speyeria and Boloria) are medium-sized to large, brownish, with numerous black spots or narrow bands on the wings, and usually with silvery spots on underside of the hind wings; larvae feed on violets. Crescent-spots (Phyciodes) are small and brownish, with numerous black markings on the wings; larvae feed chiefly on asters. Anglewings (Polygonia) are small to medium-sized, brownish, with dark markings on the wings; wing margins are irregular, and underside of the wings resembles a dead leaf; larvae feed mainly on nettles and elm. The Mourningcloak (PL 9), Nymphalis antiopa (Linn.), is common and widely distributed; its wings are blackish, margined with yellow; larva is gregarious and feeds on willow and elm. The Red Admiral (PL 9), Vanessa atalanta (Linn.), is common and widely distributed; its larva feeds on nettles. The Viceroy (Pl. 9), Limen-itis archippus (Cramer), looks much like a Monarch but is somewhat smaller and has a black line across the hind wing; its larva feeds on willow and poplar. Mimicry like that of the Monarch and Viceroy occurs in many butterflies and is believed to offer 1 species (Viceroy in this case) some protection from predators. Body fluids of the Monarch are apparently distasteful to predators, so they avoid it; the Viceroy's body fluids are not distasteful, but its resemblance to the Monarch may cause predators to avoid it.

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