Carpenter and Leopard Mothssee also PL

Family Cossidae

Identification: Medium-sized, heavy-bodied moths. Wings

CARPENTER, LEOPARD, & DALCERID MOTHS 243

usually spotted or mottled; 2 complete anal veins in FW; FW with an accessory cell, and some branches of R stalked. Abdomen extends beyond HW.

Cossid larvae are wood-boring, and sometimes seriously damage trees. Adults of the Carpenterworm (Pl. 12), Pri-onoxystus robiniae (Peck), a common species of carpenter moth, have a wingspread of about 2 in. The Leopard Moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Linn.), is slightly smaller and whitish, with black spots on the wings.

DALCERID MOTHS Family Dalceridae Not illus.

Identification: Superficially resemble some megalopygids (p. 244), but venation as in the Cossidae.

Two rare species of dalcerids occur in Arizona. They are orange-yellow without dark markings, and have a wingspread of about 1 in.

SLUG CATERPILLARS Family Limacodidae See also PL 12 Identification: Small to medium-sized, stout-bodied, with broad rounded wings. Mostly brownish, marked with green, silver, or some other color. FW has 2 complete anal veins; 3A in FW short, meeting 2A near base of wing; M2 in FW rises closer to Mz than to Mi. Sc and R in HW separate at base, fused for a short distance near middle of discal cell. No accessory cell in FW.

Limacodid larvae are rather fleshy, with short thoracic legs and no prolegs; they move about a little like slugs. Some larvae have stinging hairs. A common species of this type is the Saddleback Caterpillar, Sibine stimulea (Clemens), which feeds on various trees.

FLANNEL MOTHS Family Megalopygidae

Identification: Stout-bodied, very hairy, generally brownish or cream-colored, with a wingspread of 25-35 mm. Sc and R in HW fused to middle of discal cell or beyond. Some branches of R in FW stalked beyond discal cell. M2 in FW rises near M3.

Larvae of these moths are stout and hairy, with some of the hairs forming a crest down middle of the back; some body hairs are stinging. This is a small group and its members are not common.

PLANTHOPPER PARASITES Family Epipyropidae Not illus. Identification: Small, with broad wings and plumose antennae. FW with an accessory cell; no branches of R stalked.

Larvae of these moths live, probably as parasites, on the bodies of planthoppers (Fulgoroidea). Two very rare species occur in the U.S.

SMOKY MOTHS Family Pyromorphidae Identification: Small gray or black moths, with wings thinly scaled. HW with 2 or J anal veins (if with 2, then 2 complete anal veins in FW), and Sc and R fused to near end of discal cell. All branches of R in FW rise from discal cell, or R3 and R4 short-stalked.

The more common smoky moths resemble scape moths (Ctenuchidae, p. 236), but can be recognized by the wing venation. Larvae of most species feed on grape or Virginia creeper.

WINDOW-WINGED MOTHS Family Thyrididae

Identification: Small, dark-colored, with light translucent spots in wings. M2 in FW rises near Mz; all branches of R and M in FW rise from the usually open discal cell (R3 and R4 are stalked in 1 genus in the Gulf states).

The front wings of these moths are somewhat triangular, the hind wings are rounded or irregularly scalloped. The group is small and its members are not common.

PYRALID MOTHS Family Pyralidae See also PI. 12

Identification: Small moths. FW usually elongate-triangular, HW broad and rounded. M2 in FW rises near M3. Sc + Rx and Rs in HW fused or very close together for a distance beyond discal cell, then separating. Palps often large and projecting forward.

This is the largest family of Microlepidoptera, with over 1100 N. American species. Its members occur almost everywhere and many are very common. Larvae vary in habits: many feed on foliage in the early instars and bore into stems in later instars; many feed about roots of grasses and other plants; a few feed on stored grain or meal, and a few are aquatic. Many are pests of cultivated plants. One of the most important pest species is the European Corn Borer (PL 12), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Members of the genus Crambus, often called close-wings, are common in meadows; they are whitish or pale yellowish brown, and the wings at rest are held close about the body. A species in this group that feeds on cactus has been introduced into Australia, where it helps control the prickly pear cactus.

BAGWORM MOTHS Family Psychidae

Identification; Small, mostly stout-bodied moths. $ usually wingless and with or without legs, antennae, and eyes. Mouth parts vestigial. Most cf (Psychinae) with wings thinly scaled or almost devoid of scales, HW with 2 anal veins, FW with 1A and 2A fused at tip or connected by a cross vein, and HW about as wide as long. Species with more elongate wings and 3 anal veins in HW can be distinguished from other similar Microlepidoptera by the vestigial mouth parts.

Psychid larvae construct portable bags, or cases, of bits of leaves and twigs, and eventually pupate in this bag. Wingless females lay their eggs in the bag, and usually never leave it until the eggs are laid. The Evergreen Bag worm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth), is a common species with wingless females; larva feeds on cedars, and the male is black with almost clear wings. Other species are somewhat smoky in color and have the wings thinly scaled.

BURROWING WEBWORMS Family Acrolophidae

Identification: Noctuidlike moths with a wingspread of 12 mm. or more. Eyes usually hairy. 1st segment of labial palps as large as 2nd or larger, the palps upturned and in cT reaching back over thorax. Wing venation complete, no veins stalked.

Larvae of these moths live in the ground and feed on roots of grasses. They usually construct a tubular web leading from the surface down into the ground, and retreat into this tube when disturbed. These insects are sometimes destructive to young corn plants.

OLETHREUTID MOTHS Family Olethreutidae Identification: Small brownish or gray moths, FW rather square-tipped. Cu2 in FW rises in basal % of discal cell. FW with R4 and R5 separate, or M2, M3, and Cui strongly converge distally. Upper side of Cu in HW usually with a fringe of long hairs.

This is a large family, with over 700 N. American species. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants; the larvae usually bore into the stems or fruits of the plant. One of the most important pests in this group is the Codling Moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (Linn.), which attacks apple and other fruits; a small caterpillar found inside an apple is very probably the larva of this moth.

TORTRICID MOTHS Family Tortricidae See also PI. 12 Identification: Similar to Olethreutidae, but Cu in HW lacking fringe of long hairs, R4 and R5 in FW usually stalked or fused, and M2, M3, and Cui in FW parallel or divergent.

Most tortricid larvae are leaf rollers or leaf tiers. Some tie a number of leaves together with silk and feed inside the shelter so formed. An important pest of the group is the Spruce Bud-worm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), which may defoliate and kill spruce or other evergreens; this species is important in n. New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Tortricids are common moths.

PHALONIID MOTHS Family Phaloniidae Not illus.

Identification: Small moths, HW broad and rounded. Cu2 in FW rises in distal 34 of discal cell. 1A absent in FW. R5 in FW usually not stalked with R4, and extends to outer margin of wing. Mi in HW usually stalked with Rs. 3rd segment of labial palps short, blunt, the palps beaklike.

Some phaloniid larvae tie leaves together to form a shelter. They are mostly seed or stem borers and are uncommon.

CARPOSINID MOTHS Family Carposinidae Not illus.

Identification: Small moths. HW with only 1 branch of M. 1A completely lacking in FW.

This is a small, relatively rare group. The larva of 1 species bores into the fruit of currants.

OECOPHORID MOTHS Family Oecophoridae

Identification: Small, somewhat flattened. Wings relatively broad, rounded apically, HW as wide as FW or nearly so. Cu2 in FW rises in distal 34 of discal cell, R4 and R5 in FW stalked; Rs and Mi in HW not stalked. Head usually smooth-scaled. Palps long, upcurved, usually extending beyond vertex.

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