Coneheaded Grasshopper

Neoconocephalus ish, usually over 1 in. Head conical, vertex extending well beyond basal antennal segment. Tegmina long and narrow. Ovipositor nearly or quite as long as body. Usually found in high grass or weeds. Songs high-pitched and buzzy.

Meadow Grasshoppers, Subfamily Conocephalinae (see also PI. 2). Slender, greenish, seldom over 1 in. Vertex does not extend beyond basal antennal segment. Prosternum usually with a pair of small spines. Found principally in wet meadows or in grassy areas near ponds and streams. Songs usually consist of relatively long buzzes separated by zips (bzzzzzz-zip-zip-zip-zip-bzzzzzz).

Shield-backed Grasshoppers, Subfamily Decticinae. Brownish to black, usually 1 in. or longer, generally short-winged, with pronotum extending back to abdomen. Most eastern species belong to the genus Atlanticus, and occur in dry upland woods. Some western species often are serious pests of field crops; the most important of these is the Mormon Cricket, Anabrus simplex Haldeman.

CAMEL CRICKETS and OTHERS Family Gryllacrididae Identification: Similar to Tettigoniidae but usually wingless, gray or brown. Wings if present with 8 or more principal longitudinal veins, and FW of cf lacking sound-producing structures. Auditory organs generally lacking.

Cave or Camel Crickets, Subfamily Rhaphidophorinae. Brownish, somewhat humpbacked appearance. Antennae contiguous at base or nearly so. Hind femora long. Occur in caves, cellars, under logs and stones, and in similar dark moist places. Most of our species belong to the genus Ceuthophilus.

Leaf-rolling Grasshoppers, Subfamily Gryllacridinae (not illus.). Tarsi lobed, somewhat flattened dor so vent rally. Hind femora extend beyond apex of abdomen. Ovipositor upturned. Our only species, Camptonotus carolinensis (Gerstaecker), which occurs in the East, is brownish and 13-15 mm. Nocturnal, feeding on aphids and spending the day in a leaf it has rolled up and tied with silk.

Jerusalem or Sand Crickets, Subfamily Stenopelmatinae. Large, robust, somewhat brownish. Tarsi not lobed, and more or less flattened laterally. Hind femora do not extend beyond apex of abdomen. These insects are western, occurring chiefly along the Pacific Coast. Nocturnal; spend the day under stones or in loose soil.

CRICKETS Family Gryllidae See also Pl. 2

Identification: Somewhat flattened insects. Tarsi 3-segmented. Ovipositor usually long and cylindrical. Cerci long and feelerlike.

This group contains many common insects, and the males are well-known songsters. Most of the tegminal (FW) surface is



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