Giant Silkworm Mothssee also PL

Family Saturniidae

Identification: Medium-sized to large moths, with broad wings. Frenulum small or vestigial. Humeral angle of HW not noticeably expanded; HW with only 1 anal vein. Wings usually with eye spots. Discal cell in FW generally open.

This group includes our largest moths, some of which have a wingspread of about 6 in.; many are brightly colored. The antennae are somewhat plumose, especially in males. Mouth parts are reduced, and adults do not feed. Larvae are large caterpillars and many have tubercles or spines on the body; they pupate in silken cocoons. Our largest saturniid is the Cecropia Moth (Pl. 10), Hyalophora cecropia (Linn.), with a wingspread of 5 or 6 in. The Luna Moth (Pl. 10), Actias luna (Linn.), is light green, with a long tail on each hind wing. The Polyphemus Moth (Pl. 10), Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer), is large, yellowish brown, with a round windowlike spot near the center of each wing. The Io Moth (PL 10), Automeris io (Fabri-cius), has a wingspread of about 2-23^ in.; males are bright yellow, with a large eye spot in each hind wing; females are similar but have dark brown front wings. The larva of the Io is a spiny green caterpillar with a narrow lateral stripe of red above and white below; the stinging spines make handling an Io larva like handling nettles.

ROYAL MOTHS Family Citheroniidae See also Pl. 10

Identification: Medium-sized to large, usually yellowish or brownish. Frenulum absent. Humeral angle of HW considerably expanded. Venation as in Saturniidae, but with 2 anal veins in HW and discal cells closed. Usually no eye spot in wings. Antennae plumose only in basal half.

Royal moth larvae usually have horns or spines on the anterior segments. They feed on various trees and pupate in the ground. The largest species in this group is the Regal Moth (Pl. 10), Citheronia regalis (Fabricius), which has a wingspread of 5 or 6 in.; its larva feeds chiefly on walnut and hickory. The Imperial Moth, Eacles imperialis (Drury), is large, yellow, marked with pinkish purple; its larva feeds on various trees. Most of the moths in the genus Anisota are brownish, with a wingspread of about 1 Yi in.; they resemble tent caterpillar moths (Lasio-campidae) but have Cu in the front wing appearing 3-branched and there are no humeral veins in the hind wing.

SACK-BEARERS Family Lacosomidae

Identification: Medium-sized, stout-bodied moths, usually yel-

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