Halictid

3 submarginal cells, with 1st about same size as 3rd; and Du-foureinae have only 2 submarginal cells.

MELITTID BEES Family Melittidae Not illus.

Identification: By the characters of Group 2 (p. 354).

Melittids are small, dark-colored, and rather rare; their nesting habits are similar to those of the Andrenidae.

LEAFCUTTING BEES Family Megachilidae Identification: Most are stout-bodied, dark-colored, and 10-20 mm. Jugal lobe of HW shorter than submedian cell. FW with 2 nearly equal-sized submarginal cells. Pollen carried on underside of abdomen (except in inquiline species). Subantennal sutures rise on outer margins of antennal sockets. First 2 segments of labial palps elongate and flattened. Maxillary palps vestigial. Glossa long and slender.

Many leaf cutting bees are very common. They usually nest in the ground or in some natural cavity, with cell partitions of mud, resin, or leaf pulp. A few are inquilines.

DIGGER BEES, CARPENTER BEES, BUMBLE BEES,

HONEY BEES, and Others. Family Apidae See also PI. 16 Identification: Jugal lobe in HW shorter than submedian cell (rarely absent). Usually 3 submarginal cells. First 2 segments of labial palps elongate and flattened. Maxillary palps well developed or vestigial. Glossa long and slender.

This is a large group that varies in size, appearance, and habits. The family contains 3 subfamilies, Anthophorinae, Xylocopinae, and Apinae. Apinae include bumble bees and the Honey Bee, which are social; bees in the other 2 subfamilies are solitary. Each subfamily is further divided into tribes. Only more common groups in the family are mentioned here.

Digger Bees (Subfamily Anthophorinae, chiefly the tribes Anthophorini, Eucerini, and Emphorini). Robust and hairy, usually brownish, mostly 10-20 mm.; they nest in the ground. These differ from bumble bees and large carpenter bees in having 2nd submarginal cell shorter than the 1st (along posterior side); they differ from cuckoo bees in the Anthophorinae and from small carpenter bees in being much more hairy; and differ from the Honey Bee in having eyes bare and in having 2 apical spurs on the hind tibiae.

Cuckoo Bees (Subfamily Anthophorinae, chiefly the tribes Nomadini and Epeolini). Do not construct a nest but lay their eggs in nests of other bees. They are relatively bare, and wasplike in appearance; hind legs do not have a pollen-collecting apparatus. Nomadini are reddish or brownish, about 8-10 mm., and have a very small rounded jugal lobe m hind wing. Epeolini are larger, usually black, with whitish or yellowish markings.

Wings of Cuckoo Bee

Wings of Leafcutting Bee

Anthophorini

Head of O Leafcutting Bee

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