Harvester

Las/us

Solenopsis

CARPENTER ANTS (p.346)

queen

Componotus secretion from the anus. Seven subfamilies occur in the U.S., but about % of the species belong to 2 subfamilies — the Myrmicinae (abdominal stalk 2-segmented) and Formicinae (abdominal stalk 1-segmented). Myrmicinae include (see illus., p. 345) fire ants, harvester ants, and others; females sting. Formicinae include (see illus., p. 345) carpenter ants, mound-building ants, field ants, and others; females do not sting.

Vespoid Wasps: Superfamily Vespoidea

Pronotum in lateral view more or less triangular, extending to tegulae or nearly so. Antennae usually threadlike, 12-segmented in 9 and 13-segmented in d\ Trochanters 1-segmented. Ovipositor apical, and functioning as a sting. Venation normal.

SPIDER WASPS Family Pompilidae See also PI. 16

Identification: Long-legged, hind femora usually extending to apex of abdomen. Mesopleura with a transverse suture. 1st discoidal cell in FW not particularly long. Wings not folded longitudinally at rest.

Spider wasps are usually dark-colored, and many have dark wings; most are 10—25 mm., but some western species are 40 mm. or more. These wasps are quite common, and are usually found on flowers or on the ground in search of prey. Prey consists of spiders, which are generally placed in a specially constructed cell (in some species made of mud) or burrow in the ground; sometimes the spider is merely stung by the wasp and an egg laid on it and left in its own burrow. Spider wasps inflict a very painful sting.

VESPID WASPS Family Vespidae See also PI. 16

Identification: First discoidal cell in FW very long, half as long as wing or nearly so. Wings folded longitudinally at rest.

This is a large group that contains many very common wasps. Five of the 7 N. American subfamilies are widely distributed and the other 2 are restricted to the West. Members of the Vespinae, Polistinae, and Polybiinae are social wasps; the young are fed by the adults with chewed-up insects of various sorts. Because these wasps make nests of a papery material they are sometimes called paper wasps. Other subfamilies of Vespidae contain solitary wasps, which make nests of various types; their nests are usually provisioned with caterpillars.

Subfamily Masarinae. Two submarginal cells (other subfamilies have 3 submarginal cells). Antennae clubbed. 10-20 mm. These wasps occur in the West. Their nests are made of mud or sand and attached to rocks or twigs, and are provisioned with pollen and nectar.

Subfamily Euparagiinae. Second discoidal cell in FW 4-sided.

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