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13'. Ocelli present; size and wing color variable 14

14(13'). Anal cell with an acute distal projection posteriorly;

wings usually patterned Otitidae, Tephritidae (p. 288) 14'. Anal cell truncate or rounded apically, without an acute distal projection posteriorly 15

15(14'). Head extended on each side into a lateral process bearing eye, with antennae widely separated on eye stalks; scutellum with 2 tubercles Diopsidae (p. 286)

15'. Without this combination of characters 16

16(15'). Costa broken near end of Sc or Ri

Tephritidae, Richardiidae (p. 288); Lonchaeidae, Pallopteridae (p. 294); Canaceidae (p. 298) 16'. Costa not broken near end of Sc or Ri

Platystomatidae, Otitidae (p. 288);

Chamaemyiidae (p. 292) 17(2'). Basal segment of hind tarsi short and swollen, shorter than 2nd segment Sphaeroceridae (p. 296)

17'. Basal segment of hind tarsi not swollen, and usually longer than 2nd segment 18

18(17'). R2+3 ending in C just beyond Ri Asteiidae (p. 296)

18'. R2+3 longer, ending beyond middle of wing 19

19(18'). 3rd antennal segment large, reaching lower edge of head, with arista absent or represented by only a small apical tubercle Cryptochetidae (p. 297)

19'. Without this combination of characters 20

20(19'). Costa broken once or twice, at least near end of Ri 21 20'. Costa not broken Neriidae (p. 286);

Periscelididae, Chamaemyiidae (p. 292) 21(20). Costa broken once, near end of Ri 22

21'. Costa broken twice, near end of Ri and near humeral cross vein 26

22(21). Anal cell lacking; ocellar triangle usually large and distinct Chloropidae (p. 298)

22'. Anal cell present or ocellar triangle small 23

23(22'). Sternopleural bristles present 24

23'. No sternopleural bristles Psilidae (p. 290);

Canaceidae (p. 298) 24(23). Eyes prominently bulging, vertex sunken; front femora thickened Rhinotoridae (p. 286)

24'. Without this combination of characters 25

25(24'). Postvertical bristles converging Trixoscelididae (p. 296);

Tethinidae, Anthomyzidae (p. 298) 25'. Postvertical bristles diverging or absent

Opomyzidae (p. 298); Agromyzidae, Odiniidae (p. 300) 26(21'). Antennae retractile into deep grooves, face receding;

eyes small and round Thyreophoridae (p. 294)

26'. Without this combination of characters 27

27(26'). Anal cell absent; oral vibrissae absent; postvertical bristles diverging Ephydridae (p. 300)

27'. Anal cell and oral vibrissae usually present; postvertical bristles parallel or converging (rarely absent)

Milichiidae, Drosophilidae (p. 300);

Curtonotidae, Diastatidae, Camillidae (p. 302)

STILT-LEGGED FLIES Family Micropezidae Identification: Medium-sized, slender, usually black. Legs long and stiltlike. Sc complete. Oral vibrissae absent. R5 cell narrowed or closed apically. Anal cell usually long and pointed. Arista dorsal.

These flies are relatively uncommon, and are generally found in moist places. Larvae occur in dung.

TANYPEZID FLIES Family Tanypezidae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Micropezidae, but head in profile higher than long and anal cell rounded apically.

Two rare species of tanypezids occur in the East, and are usually found in moist woods. Larvae are unknown.

CACTUS FLIES Family Neriidae Identification: Similar to Micropezidae, but with the antennae long and projecting forward, and the arista apical. Grayish flies with brown markings.

Two species of cactus flies occur on or near decaying cacti from Texas to California. Larvae live in decaying cacti.

ROPALOMERID FLIES Family Ropalomeridae Not illus. Identification: Medium-sized and usually brownish or grayish. Sc complete. Oral vibrissae lacking. Eyes prominently bulging, the vertex sunken. Femora enlarged. Ri ends far beyond Sc. R5 cell narrowed distally. Posterior thoracic spiracle with a group of bristles. Palps broad.

Our only species, Rhytidops floridensis (Aldrich), occurs about fresh exudates of palm trees in Florida.

RHINOTORID FLIES Family Rhinotoridae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Ropalomeridae, but Ri ends close to Sc, the R5 cell is not narrowed distally, the posterior thoracic spiracle is without a group of bristles, and the palps are narrow.

The single U.S. species in this family has been taken at banana-baited traps in New Mexico and Arizona. Its larva is unknown.

STALK-EYED FLIES Family Diopsidae Identification: Small blackish flies. Sc complete. Oral vibrissae lacking. Head slightly extended on each side into a short stalklike process bearing the eye, the antennae widely separated. Scu-tellum with 2 tubercles. Front femora swollen.

This group is represented in N. America by a single rare species, Sphyracephala brevicornis (Say), which occurs from Quebec to Colorado and N. Carolina. Larva breeds in decaying vegetation. Adults are sometimes found on skunk cabbage. Some tropical species in this group have long and slender eye stalks.

acrostichal b. transverse I supra-alĀ« suture I / int presutural mesoscutellum (scutellum)

dorso-central b.N post-humeral b.^ humeral b./V humeral [ callus"T propleuron-^| notopleuron\^ propleural byA, spiracle / mesopleuron

J Vf haltere Lateral view

J 11 (/ metapleuron

X ^Tcoxa3

p.eropleuralb. /acrosHchal b.

.humeral callus sterno-pleuroi

' noto-pleural coxa sternopleural b.

humeral b. s presutural b.

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