but older larvae construct portable cases of bits of leaves and excrement; older larvae feed by protruding the head from end of the case and eating holes in leaves of the host plant. The Pistol Casebearer, Coleophora malivorella Riley, and the Cigar Casebearer, C. serratella (Linn.), are pests of apple and other fruit trees; the common names refer to the shape of the cases.

COSMOPTERYGID MOTHS Family Cosmopterygidae Identification: Head smooth-scaled. Ri in FW usually rises about middle of discal cell or slightly beyond, and R2 rises before apex of cellj usually a little more than halfway between Ri and R3. R4 and R5 in FW stalked or fused. Discal cell in FW variable in position, but if oblique (as in Coleophoridae) front tibiae have a well-developed pad on inner surface at about half their length.

Cosmopterygids are small moths that vary somewhat in wing shape and venation and in color; a few have apex of the front wing elongated. Larvae of most species are leaf miners; 1 species feeds in the bolls of cotton.

BLASTOBASID MOTHS Family Blastobasidae Identification: Small moths. FW with a stigmalike thickening between C and Rx. R2 in FW rises at or near apex of discal cell. R4 and R5 in FW long-stalked.

About 100 species of blastobasids occur in N. America, but they are not common. Some larvae are scavengers; the larva of 1 species feeds inside acorns that have been hollowed out by acorn weevils.

SHIELD BEARERS Family Heliozelidae Not illus.

Identification: Small moths. Head smooth-scaled. Palps short and drooping. Discal cell absent in HW, sometimes (Coptodisca) also absent in FW.

Larvae of most shield bearers are leaf miners and when ready to pupate cut out an oval section of the leaf and make it into a pupal case that is attached to another part of the host plant. Most species attack trees.

HELIODINID MOTHS Family Heliodinidae

Identification: Very small moths. Head smooth-scaled. Venation variable, FW sometimes (Cycloplasis) with only 3 or 4 veins, usually with a well-developed discal cell and 8-10 veins extending from cell to wing margin and Ri rising about middle of cell. At least 3 veins rise from apex of discal cell in FW. HW without a forked vein at apex.

These moths rest with the hind or middle legs outstretched or elevated above the wings. Larvae vary in habits: some are leaf miners, some are external feeders on foliage, and 1 species is an internal parasite of oak scales (Kermidae).

EPERMENHD MOTHS Family Epermeniidae Not illus.

Identification: Small moths. FW with 10 veins from discal cell to wing margin, 4 of them to costal margin. Head smooth-scaled. Ri in FW rises before middle of discal cell. Rs in HW ends at or before apex of wing. Ocelli absent.

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