The Virginia Ctenucha (PL 11), Ctenucha virginica (Charpentier), is larger and broader-winged; its wings are blackish, with a narrow white margin along rear edge of the hind wings, and the body is metallic blue; larva is a hairy yellowish caterpillar. The Lichen Moth, Lycomorpha pholus (Drury), is small, narrow-winged, and blackish, with the base of the wings yellow; adults occur commonly on goldenrod and larvae feed on lichens.

TIGER MOTHS Family Arctiidae See also PL 11

Identification: Small to medium-sized, usually light-colored, often brightly spotted or banded. Cu in HW appears 4-branched; Sc and R in HW usually fused to about middle of discal cell, or for a short distance beyond basal areole, and Sc swollen at base. Ocelli present (except in Lithosiinae). If Cu appears 3-branched (some Lithosiinae), Sc and R in HW are fused to middle of discal cell or beyond, and M2 and M3 in FW are absent. Noctuids are very similar but generally dark-colored, the palps usually longer (extending beyond middle of face), and Sc and R in HW fuse for only a short distance beyond the basal areole.

This is a large group, many species of which are common moths. Larvae are usually very hairy, and some are called woollybears; most of them feed on grasses but a few feed on trees and shrubs. Adults are generally heavy-bodied and hold wings rooflike over the body at rest; many are beautifully colored and some are largely white. Larvae of the Fall Web-worm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury), often seriously damage trees and shrubs; they spin silk over the foliage, skeletonizing the leaves as they feed, and may form a web over foliage of entire branches; adults are small white moths.

NOLID MOTHS Family Nolidae Not illus.

Identification: Wing venation as in Arctiidae. FW with tufts of raised scales. Ocelli absent.

This is a small group and its members are not common. Most nolids have a wingspread of 1 in. or less. Some larvae feed on lichens, others feed on various trees; larva of the Sorghum Webworm, Celama sorghiella (Riley), feeds on sorghum.

NOCTUID MOTHS Family Noctuidae See also Pl. 11

Identification: Sc and R in HW fused for a short distance beyond a small basal areole, then separating; Cu in HW appears 3- or 4-branched (M2 in HW often weak or absent). Ocelli nearly always present. Antennae slender and threadlike, never plumose. Palps extend to middle of face or beyond.

This is the largest family in the order, with some 2700 N. American species, and many are common moths. Most are nocturnal. Noctuids vary considerably in size and color but most have a wingspread of 20-40 mm. and are dark-colored. The wings at rest may be held flat or rooflike over the body. Underwings (Catocala), most of which have a wingspread of 1in., are strikingly colored; the front wings are generally a mottled brownish or gray, but the hind wings have concentric bands of red, yellow, or orange. Noctuid larvae are smooth and dull-colored and most have 5 pairs of prolegs; a few, called loopers, have only 3 pairs, and move like inchworms. Larvae of some species (cutworms) feed on roots and shoots of various

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