species, Cimex lectularius Linn., is often a serious pest in houses, hotels, and other living quarters, and it also attacks various animals. Other bed bugs attack bats and birds. This group is a small one but widely distributed.

MINUTE PIRATE BUGS Family Anthocoridae Identification: Small (mostly 3-5 mm.), oval, flattened, and black with white markings. FW with a cuneus, the membrane with few or no veins and no closed cells. Beak and tarsi 3-seg-mented. Ocelli present. Antennae 4-segmented.

Anthocorids are fairly common bugs usually found on flowers (they are sometimes called flower bugs), but some species occur

under bark, in leaf litter, or in fungi. They are predaceous on other insects and insect eggs.

LEAF or PLANT BUGS See also p. 113 and Pl. 3

Family Miridae

Identification: Small, oval or elongate, soft-bodied, mostly less than 10 mm. FW with a cuneus, and membrane with 2 closed cells (rarely membrane is lacking and cuneus is not distinct, in which case hind femora are enlarged). Ocelli absent. Beak 4-segmented. Tarsi 3-segmented.

This is the largest family of bugs, with several hundred N. American species. They occur on vegetation, and are often abundant. All are rather soft-bodied, many are brightly colored. Nearly all the leaf bugs feed on plants, and some are serious pests of cultivated plants. Fleahoppers (Halticus), which are active jumpers, have short, uniformly thickened front wings and enlarged hind femora.

JUMPING TREE BUGS Family Isometopidae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Miridae but with ocelli. Less than 3 mm.

Five rare species in this group occur in the East. They are usually on bark or twigs and jump when disturbed.

MICROPHYSID BUGS Family Microphysidae Not illus.

Identification: Broadly oval and somewhat flattened, shining black, 1.2 mm. Ocelli present. Antennae 4-segmented. Middle and hind tarsi 2-segmented. FW with a cuneus.

One very rare species of microphysid, Mallochiola gagates (McAtee and Malloch), occurs in the U.S. It has been recorded from Maryland and the District of Columbia.

GNAT BUGS Family Enicocephalidae Not illus.

Identification: Slender, gnatlike, about 5 mm. FW entirely membranous. Front femora and tarsi thickened. Middle and hind tarsi 2-segmented. Head elongate, constricted behind eyes. Ocelli present. Antennae and beak 4-segmented.

At least 4 rare species of Systelloderes occur in the e. U.S.

AMBUSH BUGS Family Phymatidae See also PI. 3

Identification: Antennae 4-segmented, slightly clubbed. Beak short and 3-segmented. Ocelli present. Front femora greatly thickened. Middle and hind tarsi 3-segmented. Abdomen wider in distal half, extending laterally beyond wings.

Ambush bugs are common predaceous insects that usually occur on flowers, where they lie in wait for their prey. They often are found on goldenrod, where their greenish-yellow and brownish color provides camouflage. Though small (12 mm. or less), they are able to capture insects as large as bumble bees. They do not bite man.

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