Jugate Moths Suborder Jugatae

Venation in FW and HW similar, Rs in HW with as many branches as in FW. No frenulum, the wings on each side united by a jugum (a fingerlike lobe at base of FW). This is a small group, with about 30 N. American species. Most are quite rare.

ERIOCRANIID MOTHS Family Eriocraniidae Not illus.

Identification: Wingspread 12 mm. or less. Maxillary palps well developed, 5-segmented. Mandibles vestigial. Middle tibiae with 1 spur. Sc in FW forked near its tip.

Eriocraniids are somewhat similar to clothes moths. Larvae are leaf miners, usually attacking trees. Larva of Mnemónica auricyanea Walsingham makes blotch mines in oak and chestnut, and pupates in the soil. None of our 5 N. American species is common.

MANDIBULATE MOTHS Family Micropterygidae

Identification: Similar to Eriocraniidae, but with functional mandibles, middle tibiae without spurs, and Sc in FW forked near its middle.

These moths differ from all other Lepidoptera in having functional mandibles. They feed chiefly on pollen. Larvae whose habits are known feed on mosses and liverworts. Only 3 species of mandibulate moths occur in N. America, and they are quite rare.

GHOST MOTHS or SWIFTS Family Hepialidae Identification: Wingspread 1-3 in. Maxillary palps well developed. No tibial spurs.

Ghost moths are relatively uncommon, but are the jugates most likely to be encountered. The name "swift" refers to the very fast flight of most of these moths. Some of the larger species are similar to sphinx moths. Larvae bore in the roots of various trees; Sthenopis argenteomaculatus Harris attacks alder and S. thule Strecker bores in willow.

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