Size variable but usually with a wingspread of 1 in. or more. FW more or less triangular, HW rounded. Fringe of hairs on anal margin of HW short. Generally only 1 anal vein (2A) in FW and 1 or 2 (2A, or 2A and 3A) in HW.

Butterflies: Superfamily Papilionoidea

Antennae knobbed but never hooked at tip, and close together at base. Some branches of R in FW stalked beyond discal cell, or fewer than 5 branches present. Wings generally large in proportion to body.

SWALLOWTAILS Family Papilionidae Identification: FW with R 5-branched and Cu appearing 4-branched. HW with 1 anal vein and with tail-like prolongations. Front legs normal-sized, not reduced.

This group includes some of our largest and most strikingly colored butterflies, only a few of which can be mentioned here. The Tiger Swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linn., one of our largest swallowtails, is brightly colored with yellow and black (some individuals have the wings almost entirely dark); its larva (illus., p. 219) feeds on various trees. The Black Swallowtail, P. polyxenes asterius Stoll, is black with 2 rows of yellow spots around wing margins; larva feeds on carrots, parsley, and related plants. The Zebra Swallowtail, Graphium marcellus (Cramer), is pale greenish with black stripes, and has rather long tails; larva feeds on papaw. The Spicebush Swallowtail, P. troilus Linn., is blackish with a row of small yellow spots along outer margin of the front wing and extensive blue-green areas in the hind wing; its larva feeds on spicebush and sassafras.

PARNASSIANS Family Parnassiidae Identification: Similar to Papilionidae, but R in FW 4-branched and HW without tail-like prolongations.

Parnassians are usually gray or white with dark markings. Most species have 2 small reddish eye spots in the hind wing. These butterflies have a wingspread of about 2 in., and are principally western in distribution.

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