Meadow Grasshopper

dorsal in position, with a narrow lateral portion bent down abruptly; the right tegmen is usually uppermost at rest. The front wings of females are thickened and leathery; those of males contain large membranous areas and are often wider. Songs generally are rapid trills or chirps — more musical and less lisping than songs of Tettigoniidae. Only the more common subfamilies can be mentioned here.

Mole Crickets, Subfamily Gryllotalpinae. Brownish, very pubescent. Usually 1 in. or longer. Front legs broad and spadelike. Antennae relatively short. Ovipositor not visible externally. Tegmina usually short, covering only about half of abdomen. Mole crickets burrow in the ground, ordinarily in moist places, and are not often encountered.

Bush Crickets, Subfamilies Eneopterinae and Trigonidiinae (see also PL 2). Most bush crickets are less than 9 mm. and brownish. 2nd tarsal segment heart-shaped and flattened dor-soventrally (small and flattened laterally in the remaining subfamilies). Eneopterinae have small teeth on hind tibiae between the spines and the ovipositor is cylindrical and nearly straight. Trigonidiinae lack teeth between the tibial spines and the ovipositor is somewhat sword-shaped (Trigonidiinae are sometimes called sword-bearing crickets). Found in bushes; they resemble the more common ground crickets (Nemobiinae) but do not live on the ground. Relatively uncommon in the North and more common in the South.

Tree Crickets, Subfamily Oecanthinae. Differ from the following subfamilies in lacking ocelli. Most species are pale green, have small teeth between the spines on hind tibiae. Many species are very common and all are excellent singers. Some occur on trees and shrubs, and others on high grass and weeds. The tree-and bush-inhabitants generally sing only at night, whereas the weed-inhabitants usually sing both day and night. Song of most species is a prolonged trill, but a few chirp. The chirping of the Snowy Tree Cricket, Oecanthus fultoni Walker, a bush inhabitant, is a common night sound in much of the country, and is at a very regular rate. All insects sing more slowly as the temperature drops (in the case of crickets the pitch of the song also falls with decreasing temperature), and the chirp rate of the Snowy Tree Cricket provides a means of estimating the temperature: the number of chirps in 13 seconds plus 40 gives a good estimate of the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

Ground Crickets, Subfamily Nemobiinae. Length 12 mm. or less; brownish. Spines on hind tibiae long and movable. Ground crickets are common insects, and occur on the ground in pastures, lawns, and in wooded areas. The songs are soft and high-pitched, and usually consist of pulsating trills or buzzes.

Field and House Crickets, Subfamily Gryllinae. Spines on hind tibiae short, stout, fixed. 12 mm. or longer. Field crickets (Gryllus, p. 83) are common and widely distributed; occur in

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