Moths

Oecophorids are fairly common, usually brownish moths. Depressaria heracliana (Linn.) attacks wild carrot, parsley, and related plants; the larva ties up the flower heads with silk and feeds inside them, then burrows into the stem.

STENOMID MOTHS Family Stenomidae Identification: Cu2 in FW rises at end of discal cell. Rs and Mi in HW stalked; R4 and R6 in FW usually not stalked, or if stalked then R5 extends to outer margin of wing. Head smooth-scaled.

Stenomid larvae usually feed in webs on leaves of oak. The moths are relatively large and plain-colored, whitish or gray, sometimes with dark markings. This group is small (24 N. American species), its members not common.

ETHMIID MOTHS Family Ethmiidae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Oecophoridae (p. 248), but M2 in HW rises closer to Mi than to M3.

Most ethmiids have the front wings marked with black and white. Larvae live in webs and feed chiefly on bindweed.

GLYPHIPTERYGID MOTHS Family Glyphipterygidae Identification: Small, FW rather square-tipped. Ocelli large and conspicuous. Head smooth-scaled. Cu2 in FW rises in distal of discal cell. Rs and Mi in HW separated at origin. R5 in FW free or stalked with R4, extending to apex or outer margin of wing. 2A in HW forked at base.

About 50 species occur in N. America but they are not common. Larvae of most species are leaf tiers.

ERMINE MOTHS Family Yponomeutidae See also PI. 12 Identification: Small moths, FW usually brightly patterned. Head smooth-scaled. Cu2 in FW rises in distal M °f discal cell. Rs and Mi in HW separated at their origin. R4 and R5 in FW separate, R5 extending to apex or outer margin of wing. Mi and M2 in HW not stalked (except in Argyresthia, which has the wings pointed apically).

Ermine moths are so called because some species (Yponomeuta) have the front wings white with black spots; other species are differently colored, but most have the front wings brightly patterned. Larvae of most species feed in webs spun over the leaves; a few are leaf miners, and some bore into fruit. Ermine moths are fairly common.

CLOTHES MOTHS and Others Family Tineidae Identification: Wings usually somewhat rounded apically, the HW about as wide as FW, sometimes narrowly rounded or pointed apically and HW narrower than FW. Maxillary palps usually present, folded at rest. Head rough-scaled or bristly. Antennae with a whorl of erect scales on each segment.

Most of the more than 130 species of N. American tineids are small and plain-colored. Many larvae are scavengers or feed on fungi, and some feed on fabrics; relatively few feed on foliage. Many larvae are casemakers. Three species in this group that feed on clothes and various woolen materials are often called clothes moths. The Webbing Clothes Moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel), is straw-colored and has a wingspread of 12-16 mm.; larva does not form cases. The Casemaking Clothes Moth, Tinea pellionella (Linn.), is about the same size but is more brownish and has 3 small dark spots in each front wing; its larva is a casemaker. The Carpet Moth, Trichophaga tapetzella (Linn.), is 12-14 mm. in wingspread and base of the front wings

is dark; larva forms silken galleries in the fabrics on which it feeds.

YUCCA MOTHS and Others Family Incurvariidae p. 253 Identification: Small moths. Wing surface with minute spines under the scales. Wings narrowly rounded apically, HW about as wide as FW. Venation usually complete, with R4 and R5 in FW generally stalked, and R5 extending to costal margin of wing. Maxillary palps usually well developedy folded, the folded part to % as long as width of head (sometimes vestigial or short and not folded).

Subfamily Incurvariinae (not illus.). The maxillary palps are folded, the folded part about half as long as width of head. Most are black or metallic bluish. Larva of the Maple Leaf Cutter, Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch), is a leaf miner when young and a casemaker when older; cases of older larvae are made from 2 circular pieces of the leaf and are somewhat turtlelike. The members of this group are not common.

Yucca Moths, Subfamily Prodoxinae. These are similar to the Incurvariinae but white. Yucca moths in the genus Tegeti-cula pollinate the yucca; the female lays her eggs in the ovary of a yucca flower, and the larvae feed on the seeds; after ovipositing, the female thrusts a mass of yucca pollen into the stigma of the flower in which the eggs are laid. Pollen is collected by means of long curled tentacles on the maxillae. Yucca moths in the genus Prodoxus lack maxillary tentacles and do not pollinate yucca, but their larvae feed on its flower stem and the fleshy part of the fruit.

Fairy Moths, Subfamily Adelinae (not illus.). These moths have antennae at least as long as the front wings (in males to several times as long). Larvae usually live in flowers or seeds, and pupate inside 2 oval pieces of a leaf. There are about a dozen N. American species, and they are not common.

Microlepidoptera, Group 3

Small to minute, wingspread 3-20 mm. Wings narrow and more or less pointed apically; HW usually narrower than FW, with anal area reduced and with a long fringe on anal margin of wing.

Separation of families in this group will be a problem for the beginner. It is based principally on wing venation, mouth parts, head scaling, and occasionally other characters. Wing venation often is difficult to make out, even after the wings are cleared. Maxillary palps are vestigial or absent in most of these moths but in a few are well developed and at rest held in a folded position on either side of the proboscis. Labial palps are usually well developed, the basal segment small and the other 2 elongate; they curve up in front of the head, often to middle of the face or beyond. Some of these moths have an eye cap: the basal antennal segment is enlarged and concave beneath and fits over the eye when the antenna is depressed. The head is smooth-scaled in most moths in this group, but in some is rather bristly, especially on the vertex.

OPOSTEGID MOTHS Family Opostegidae Not illus.

Identification: Small to minute. Antennae with an eye cap. Maxillary palps small and folded. Venation greatly reduced, FW with only 3 or 4 unbranched veins.

Only 6 species of opostegids occur in N. America, and they are not common. Larvae are leaf miners.

NEPTICULID & LYONETIID MOTHS, ETC. 253

NEPTICULID MOTHS Family Nepticulidae Not illus.

Identification: Minute moths. Antennae with an eye cap. Maxillary palps well developed, long, folded. FW with branched veins.

Some nepticulids have a wingspread of only a few mm. They are fairly common, but because of their small size are often overlooked. Larvae are mostly leaf miners, but a few form galls on the twigs or leaf petioles of various trees.

LYONETHD MOTHS Family Lyonetiidae Identification: Small to very small moths. Antennae with an eye cap. Vertex usually rough and bristly. Labial palps very short and drooping. Ocelli absent.

Some species in this fairly large group are quite common. Larvae are leaf miners, or live in webs between leaves. The largest genus is Bucculatrix, the larvae of which form whitish, longitudinally ribbed cocoons attached to twigs.

LEAF BLOTCH MINERS Family Gracilariidae p. 255

Identification: Small to minute moths. Antennae with or without an eye cap. Maxillary palps usually absent; if present, small and projecting forward. Scaling on vertex rough or smooth.

wmgs maxillary' palp wmgs maxillary' palp maxillary tentacle head (anterior) head (lateral)

proboscis

YUCCA MOTH (Tegeticula)

maxillary tentacle head (anterior) head (lateral)

YUCCA MOTH (Tegeticula)

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