1 Letters refer to the types illustrated above. 3 N, normal; R, reduced.

2E, elbowed; T, not elbowed (usually threadlike). 4 Exceptions occur.

1 Letters refer to the types illustrated above. 3 N, normal; R, reduced.

2E, elbowed; T, not elbowed (usually threadlike). 4 Exceptions occur.

loidea, most Scolioidea, most Chalcidoidea, and a few Cynipoidea are parasites of other insects or spiders; adults of these generally seek out and oviposit in or on a host, then go on seeking other hosts; they do not make a nest. Adults of Vespoidea and Sphe-coidea generally build a nest, or cells of some sort, then go out and capture prey (other insects or spiders) with which they provision the nest or cells; after doing this they go their way, leaving the young to fend for themselves (except in the social wasps). There is no sharp line of distinction between these 2 methods of operation, and in the family Pompilidae one may find a range in habits from one extreme to the other. Bees (Apoidea) resemble Vespoidea and Sphecoidea in building and provisioning nests or cells, but provision them with nectar and pollen. Social wasps and bees do not provision the nest, but feed the young as they grow. Ants, which are also social, generally construct a nest and feed the young as they grow. The food of young ants may be plant or animal material, depending on the species. Some wasps (certain Sphecidae and Chrysididae) and cuckoo bees are inquilines: they build no nest and collect no food for their young, but lay their eggs in nests of other wasps or bees, where their young feed on the food with which these nests are provisioned. The term "cuckoo" is derived from the European Cuckoo (and our cowbirds), which lays its eggs in the nests of other birds.

Apocrita that are plant-feeding in the larval stage include bees, gall wasps (Cynipinae), and some Chalcidoidea. Gall wasp larvae live in and feed on plant galls; the plant-feeding chalcid larvae feed in various ways on plants (a few feed in galls).

Superfamily Ichneumonoidea

Pronotum in profile more or less triangular, and extending to tegulae or nearly so. Antennae threadlike, usually with 16 or more segments. Hind trochanters 2-segmented. Ovipositor rises in front of apex of abdomen, not capable of being withdrawn, often long, sometimes longer than body. Venation usually normal. FW without a costal cell (except in Stephanidae).

This is one of the largest superfamilies in the order, and its members are to be found almost everywhere. The known larvae are parasites of other insects or spiders.

BRACONIDS Family Braconidae See also PI. 15

Identification: Most are brownish or black, not brightly colored. 1 recurrent vein (see p. 313) or none, the 2nd recurrent vein absent. 2-15 mm. 1st submarginal and 1st discoidal cells either coalesce or are separated by base of cubital vein.

This is a large and widely distributed group found almost everywhere. Larvae are parasites of a great variety of insects, and many are important agents in the control of noxious insects.

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