Ox Warble

sternopleural bristle, or fine erect hairs on undersurface of scutellum.

This is a large group that includes many common flies. Most are similar to a House Fly in general appearance and vary from being smaller to larger than a House Fly. Larval habits vary: many are plant feeders, and some of these are serious pests of cultivated plants; many are scavengers, living in excrement or decaying materials; some are aquatic.

MUSCID FLIES Family Muscidae See also PL 14

Identification: Similar to Anthomyiidae, but 2A short and not reaching wing margin, undersurface of scutellum usually without fine hairs, and generally more than 1 sternopleural bristle. R5 cell parallel-sided or narrowed distally.

This group includes many common flies, some of which are important pests. Most of them resemble the House Fly. The House Fly (Pl. 14), Musca domestica Linn., is a common household pest that breeds in various sorts of filth; it may serve as a vector of several diseases (typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, and others); it has a short fleshy proboscis (and does not bite), and the R5 cell is narrowed distally. The Little House Fly, Fannia canicularis (Linn.), is often a nuisance in houses and around poultry yards; adults can be recognized by the form of 3A (bends toward wing tip distally); its larva breeds in filth. The Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linn.), is very similar to the House Fly, but has a slender proboscis and it bites; it breeds in decaying vegetation.

TACHINID FLIES Family Tachinidae See also PL 14

Identification: R5 cell narrowed or closed distally. Postscutellum developed. Hypopleura with bristles. Arista usually bare.

This is one of the largest families of Diptera, and its members are to be found almost everywhere. Most tachinids resemble the House Fly but many are larger; some are hairy and beelike. Tachinids can usually be distinguished from other calyptrates by the bare arista; some have the arista plumose, and can be recognized as tachinids by the well-developed postscutellum. Larvae are parasites of other insects, and many are of value in keeping noxious species under control.

BLOW FLIES Family Calliphoridae See also Pl. 14

Identification: Similar to Tachinidae, but postscutellum not developed. Arista plumose. Body often metallic. Usually 2 notopleural bristles, and hindmost posthumeral bristle located lateral to presutural bristle.

This is a large group of flies, and its members are often common and abundant. Most species are as large as the House Fly and some are larger. Many are metallic bluish or green. Larvae are generally scavengers, living in carrion, dung, and similar materials; most maggots one finds in the body of a dead animal are blow fly larvae. Larvae usually feed on dead tissue, but a few, such as the Screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), may attack living tissue (in an animal's nostrils or in wounds).

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