decaying vegetation or fruit. Larvae of most species breed in decaying fruit or fungi. Species of Drosophila have been used extensively in studies of heredity.

CAMILLID FLIES Family Camillidae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Drosophilidae, but body metallic, no sternopleural bristles, and mesopleura bristly.

A single species in this group has been recorded in Ontario. Its immature stages are unknown.

DIASTATID FLIES Family Diastatidae

Identification: Similar to Drosophilidae, but costa spiny and mesopleura with bristles. Arista short-plumose. Fronto-orbital bristles close to eyes, the downward-bent pair positioned above the upward-bent pair.

These flies are similar to the Drosophilidae, but little is known of their habits. The U.S. has 6 species.

CURTONOTID FLIES Family Curtonotidae Identification: Similar to Diastatidae, but arista long-plumose, fronto-orbital bristles remote from eyes, the downward-bent pair positioned below upward-bent pair and no cross vein separating 2nd basal and discal cells.

Curtonotids are represented in the U.S. by 1 species, Curto-notum helvum Loew, occurring in the East. It is found in high grass in moist places and its larva is unknown.

Calyptrate Muscoids: Section Calyptratae

Calypters usually well developed. Second antennal segment with a longitudinal suture (except in Gasterophilidae); see p. 283.

This is a large group that contains many common and well-known flies. The 11 families of calyptrates may be divided into 4 groups to aid identification:

1. Body somewhat leathery and flattened dorsoventrally; coxae separated; abdominal segmentation usually indistinct; often wingless; ectoparasites of birds and mammals: Hippoboscidae, Streblidae, and Nycteribiidae (louse and bat flies).

2. Mouth opening small, mouth parts vestigial or lacking; robust, hairy, beelike: Gasterophilidae, Cuterebridae, and Oestridae (bot and warble flies).

3. R5 cell usually parallel-sided, only rarely narrowed distally; hypopleura usually without bristles (if hypopleural bristles are present, there are no pteropleural bristles or the proboscis is slender, rigid, and piercing): Anthomyiidae and Muscidae.

4. R5 cell narrowed or closed distally; hypopleura and ptero-pleura with bristles; proboscis not slender and piercing: Tachinidae, Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae.

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