Sackbearers And Epiplemid Moths 233

lowish or brownish with dark lines or spots. Frenulum small or vestigial; 2 {rarely J) anal veins in HW. Sc and Rs in HW not connected by a cross vein.

Larvae of these moths construct portable cases of leaves. Three species (none common) occur in the U.S. — 2 in the East and 1 in Arizona. One eastern species has apex of the front wing somewhat sickle-shaped, and the other has distal margin of the front wing toothed or scalloped.

EPIPLEMID MOTHS Family Epiplemidae

Identification: Grayish or yellowish, with a wingspread of about 20 mm. Frenulum well developed. Mi and R5 in FW stalked. M3 and Cui not stalked.

Only 5 species of epiplemids occur in the U.S. They are relatively rare.

GEOMETER MOTHS Family Geometridae See also PI. 10 Identification: Small to medium-sized, usually slender-bodied. Sc in HW with a rather abrupt angle basally, and often connected to humeral angle of wing by a cross vein. Antennae not dilated apically, or if so then eyes are bare.

This is a large group, with some 1200 N. American species, occurring almost everywhere. Larvae are small slender caterpillars with only 2 or 3 pairs of prolegs; they move in a looping fashion, and are called measuringworms or inchworms. The moths usually hold wings outstretched at rest rather than back over the body. Females of a few species (like cankerworms) are wingless. Larvae feed on many different plants; some tree feeders occasionally damage orchard and shade trees.

MANIDIID MOTHS Family Manidiidae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Geometridae, but antennae dilated apically and eyes hairy.

A single rare species in this group occurs in Arizona.

SILKWORM MOTHS Family Bombycidae Identification: Heavy-bodied white moths. Wingspread 35-40 mm. Sc and R in HW connected by a cross vein opposite middle of discal cell, then diverging. Frenulum very small.

Silkworm moths are not native to N. America, but 1 species, Bombyx mori (Linn.), which is the source of natural silk, is sometimes reared here. This insect, the larva of which feeds on mulberry, is not a wild species in this country.

THYATIRID MOTHS Family Thyatiridae Not illus.

Identification: Similar to Noctuidae (p. 238), but Cu in FW appears 3-branched, and Sc + Ri and Rs in HW are approximately parallel along anterior side of discal cell. Differ from Notodontidae in that Cu in HW appears 4-branched (3-branched in Notodontidae), and Rs and Mi in HW are not stalked.

Moths are medium-sized, and usually brownish with wavy or zigzag lines on the front wings. They are not common.

PROMINENTS Family Notodontidae See also PI. 11

Identification: Medium-sized, usually brownish moths. Sc + Ri and Rs in HW close together and parallel along discal cell; Rs and Mi in HW stalked a short distance beyond discal cell.

Larvae of these moths are usually gregarious. When disturbed they often freeze with ends of the body elevated. Larvae of most species feed on trees and shrubs, and some attack orchard trees. Most larvae are striped. Notodontids are fairly common moths.

0 0

Post a comment