Seaweed

Helcomyzids are uncommon flies occurring along the Pacific Coast from Oregon to Alaska. Larvae develop in rotting seaweed.

LAUXANIID FLIES Family Lauxaniidae See also PL 14

Identification: Small, usually rather stout-bodied flies, often with spots on the wings. Sc complete. 2A short, not reaching wing margin. Oral vibrissae absent. Postvertical bristles converge. Tibiae with preapical bristles.

Lauxaniids are common flies that usually occur in wooded areas or in places where the vegetation is fairly dense. Larvae breed in decaying vegetable matter and occur in leaf litter, bird nests, and similar situations.

CHAMAEMYIID FLIES Family Chamaemyiidae

Identification: Very small flies, usually grayish with black spots on abdomen. Sc variable, complete or incomplete. Costa not broken. Postvertical bristles converge. Tibiae without preapical bristles. Oral vibrissae absent. Arista bare or pubescent.

These flies are usually less than 4 mm. and are relatively common. Larvae of some species are predaceous on aphids and mealybugs.

PERISCELIDID FLIES Family Periscelididae Not illus.

Identification: Small flies, similar to Chamaemyiidae but post-vertical bristles diverging, Sc incomplete, and arista plumose.

The 3 U.S. species are widely distributed but rare. Adults may occur at fresh sap flows on trees.

SKIPPER FLIES Family Piophilidae Identification: Small flies, usually less than 5 mm., black or bluish, and rather metallic. Sc complete. 2A does not reach wing margin. Oral vibrissae present. Postvertical bristles diverge. 2nd basal and discal cells separated. 2 or fewer pairs of fronto-orbital bristles; 2 sternopleural bristles. Arista rises near base of 3rd antennal segment.

Larvae of skipper flies live in decaying animal materials, and some occasionally are pests in meats and cheese. Piophilids are called skipper flies because the larvae can jump. Adults are fairly common.

NEOTTIOPHILID FLIES Family Neottiophilidae Not illus. Identification: Similar to Piophilidae, but with 4 or 5 sternopleural bristles, vein 2A reaching wing margin, and costa spiny.

This family contains only 2 species, both European, but 1 has been recorded in n. Quebec. Nothing is known of the habits of this species; the larva of the other (European) is a bloodsucking ectoparasite of nestling birds.

THYREOPHORID FLIES Family Thyreophoridae Not illus. Identification : Sc incomplete. Costa broken near tip of Rx. Antennae retractile into deep grooves below bases of antennae, the face receding. Postvertical bristles diverge. Costa spinose fas in the heleomyzid fly, p. 297).

This group is represented in the U.S. by 2 rare species occurring in California and Arizona.

PALLOPTERID FLIES Family Pallopteridae Not illus.

Identification: Small, usually pale-colored flies with patterned wings. Sc complete. Costa broken near end of Sc. Anal cell rounded apically. Oral vibrissae absent. Tibiae lack preapical bristles. Head in profile rounded, eyes round. 3rd antennal segment oval. Postvertical bristles parallel.

Pallopterids are rare flies usually found in moist shady places. Our 9 species are widely distributed.

LONCHAEID FLIES Family Lonchaeidae

Identification: Small, shiny black flies. Abdomen in dorsal view somewhat rounded but pointed apically. Oral vibrissae absent. Sc complete. Costa broken near end of Sc. 2A usually wavy. Tibiae without preapical bristles. Head in profile hemispherical, the eyes large and oval. 3rd antennal segment elongate. Post-vertical bristles diverge.

Lonchaeids are fairly common flies that occur in shady places. Larvae are found in live, injured, or dead plant tissue, often along with other insects attacking the plant.

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