Slantfaced Grasshopper

Antennae shorter than front femora (Eumastacidae) or considerably longer (Tanaoceridae).

These 2 families contain several species of relatively uncommon grasshoppers that are found in the chaparral country of the Southwest, where they usually occur on the uppermost branches of bushes.

Suborder Ensifera

Similar to Caelifera but antennae long, slender, usually as long as body or longer. Tympana (eardrums), when present, located at base of front tibiae. Ovipositor long and slender, sometimes as long as body or longer. Tarsi 3- or 4-segmented.

LONG-HORNED GRASSHOPPERS See also PI. 2

Family Tettigoniidae

Identification: Large insects, usually greenish (sometimes brownish). Tarsi 4-segmented. Ovipositor sword-shaped. Wings present (sometimes small), with less than 8 principal longitudinal veins, c? with sound-producing structures on FW (p. 77).

The best-known members of this group are greenish and the males are noted songsters. Most of the front wing surface slopes over the sides of the body, only a small portion being horizontal and dorsal; the base of the left tegmen is usually uppermost. Most species are plant feeders, and lay their eggs on or in plant tissues; winter is generally passed in the egg stage. Our species are grouped into 8 subfamilies, the most important of which are the following.

True Katydids, Subfamily Pseudophyllinae. FW broadly ovaly somewhat convex. Prosternum with pair of short spines. Pro-notum about as long as wide and with 2 transverse grooves. Arboreal and not often seen, but their katy-did, katy-didn't song is well known; they sing only at night. Principally eastern in distribution.

Bush and Round-headed Katydids, Subfamily Phaneropter-inae. Usually green and over 1 in. FW flat, long and narrow or elongate-oval. HW usually longer than FW. Dorsal surface of 1st tarsal segment smoothly rounded (laterally grooved in the following subfamilies). Vertex somewhat rounded. Prosternal spines lacking. These katydids occur on weeds, bushes, and trees. Bush katydids (.Scudderia, PI. 2) have long, narrow, and nearly parallel-sided tegmina (FW). Angular-winged katydids (Microcentrum) have tegmina widened and somewhat angulate in the middle, and hind femora extend only a little beyond middle of tegmina. Round-headed katydids (Amblycorypha) have oval tegmina and hind femora extend almost to tips of tegmina. The songs of these katydids usually consist of a series of high-pitched lisps or ticks.

Cone-headed Grasshoppers, Subfamily Copiphorinae. Green-

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