Webspinning And Other Sawflies 315

Xyelids are uncommon. Larvae are external feeders on elm, hickory, and staminate flowers of pine or bore in new pine shoots.

WEB-SPINNING and LEAF-ROLLING SAWFLIES

Family Pamphiliidae Identification: Relatively stout-bodied, 15 mm. or less, and usually brightly colored. Antennae long and slender, with 13 or more similar segments. FW with an intercostal vein, 2 marginal cells, and 2 transverse median veins.

Pamphiliids are not common. Larvae roll up leaves, tie them with silk, and feed inside the shelter so formed; they feed on various trees and shrubs.

PERGID SAWFLIES Family Pergidae Not illus.

Identification: Small sawflies, usually less than 10 mm. Antennae 6-segmented and threadlike.

Pergids occur from the eastern states west to Arizona, but are uncommon. Larvae feed on foliage of oak and hickory.

ARGID SAWFLIES Family Argidae

Identification: Relatively stout-bodied, and 15 mm. or less. Antennae 3-segmented, the 3rd segment very long (U-shaped in many males).

Larvae of most species feed on various trees and shrubs.

CIMBICID SAWFLIES Family Cimbicidae See also PI. 15 Identification: Our largest sawflies, 18-25 mm. Look somewhat like bumble bees (but are not hairy) or hornets. Antennae with 7 or fewer segments and slightly clubbed.

Cimbicids do not sting but can inflict a strong pinch with the mandibles. Most larvae feed on willow and elm; these are greenish yellow, with black spiracles and a black stripe down the back; the body is often in a spiral position; when disturbed they may eject a fluid from glands above the spiracles.

CONIFER SAWFLIES Family Diprionidae Identification: Stout-bodied. Antennae with 13 or more segments, usually serrate in $ and pectinate in cf.

Most diprionids are 12 mm. or less, and their larvae feed on conifers. They are scarce in the Midwest but common in most areas where conifers are abundant.

HORNTAILS Family Siricidae See also PL 15

Identification: Large insects (mostly 25-35 mm.), usually brownish or black, and some species have dark wings. Pronotum in dorsal view wider than long and shorter along midline than laterally. Apex of abdomen with a dorsally located spear or spine ( $ with 2 long slender structures at apex of abdomen, lower one the ovipositor).

This and the remaining families of Symphyta (except Orus-sidae) have a single apical spur on the front tibiae. Larvae are wood-boring, and attack both deciduous trees and conifers.

CEDAR WOOD WASPS Family Syntexidae Identification: Pronotum in dorsal view trapezoidal, about twice as wide as long. FW with a costal cell.

Our only syntexid, Syntexis libocedrii Rohwer, occurs in n. California and s. Oregon. It is black and about 8 mm., and its larva bores in the wood of the incense cedar.

WOOD WASPS Family Xiphydriidae Identification: Blackish and 20-25 mm. Pronotum in dorsal view U-shapedf much longer laterally than along midline. FW with a costal cell and a transverse costal vein.

Larvae bore in the dead and decaying wood of deciduous trees.

PARASITIC WOOD WASPS Family Orussidae Identification: FW with only 1 submarginal cell. Antennae rise below eyes, just above mouth. 8-14 mm.

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