Wing Venation In Hymenoptera 313

Wing Venation Dictyoptera

Wing venational terminology in Hymenoptera. VEINS: ay anal; ac, accessory; axv, axillary; bv, basal; c, costal; cu, cubital; dt discoidal; ic, intercostal; mdv, median; mv, marginal; rv, recurrent; scv, subcostal; sd, subdiscoidal; st, stigma; tc, transverse costal; tcb, transverse cubitals; tl, transverse lanceolate; tm, transverse median; trd, transverse marginal. CELLS: A, anal; AP, apical; AX, axillary; C, costal; D, discoidal; L, lanceolate; MC, marginal; MDy median; SM, submarginal; SMD, submedian. The basal cells in the hind wing of Symphyta are MD, SMD, and L, and those in Apocrita are MD and SMD. Lobes in the hind wing: jl, jugal; vlf vannal.

ovipositor. Not all entomologists agree on how the standard venational terminology (p. 35) should be applied in this order, so we use an older terminology, which is shown on p. 313. Numbers of cells mentioned in descriptions of Hymenoptera refer to the number of closed cells, unless otherwise indicated. Leg characters involve the number of trochanter segments (1 or 2), spurs at apex of the tibia, and occasionally other features. Antennae may vary in shape, number of segments, or in location on the face. Shape of the pronotum is useful in distinguishing superfamilies of Apocrita and some families of Symphyta, and the character of various thoracic sutures is used to separate families in a few superfamilies. Ovipositor in many cases rises anterior to apex of the abdomen and cannot be withdrawn into body (Hymenoptera with such an ovipositor generally do not sting); the ovipositor in others issues from the apex of the abdomen, and is withdrawn when not in use (most Hymenoptera with this type of ovipositor can sting).

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