Hyperphoresy

Hitchhiking on a hitchhiker has been developed by some phoretic nematodes, fungi and mite species. Some nematode and fungi species take a ride on a phoretic mite. Mite species hitchhike on other mite species. The trait of hyperphoresy has evolved

Fig. 5.2 Hyperphoresy. Scanning electronmicrograph of a Myianoetus sp. heteromorphic deutonymph or hypopus (Astigmata) attached to the dorsal shield of a modified deutonymph of Uroseius sp. (Mesostigmata). The hypopus is using its anal suckers for attaching the dorsum of Uroseius, which is 'glued' to the tegument of the carrier insect by a short secreted pedicel (bottom right corner). Scale bar = 100 ^m

Fig. 5.2 Hyperphoresy. Scanning electronmicrograph of a Myianoetus sp. heteromorphic deutonymph or hypopus (Astigmata) attached to the dorsal shield of a modified deutonymph of Uroseius sp. (Mesostigmata). The hypopus is using its anal suckers for attaching the dorsum of Uroseius, which is 'glued' to the tegument of the carrier insect by a short secreted pedicel (bottom right corner). Scale bar = 100 ^m independently in several taxa. The hyperphoretic mites are specialised heteromorphic deutonymphs of either astigmatans or mesostigmatic uropodids. Myanoethus hypopi have been recorded attached to the dorsal shield of Uroseius (Fig. 5.2) and Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Perotti 1998).

Hypopi of Acaridae (Astigmata) are hyperphoretic on Hypoaspis sp. (Laelapidae, Mesostigmata) carried by a queen of the bumblebee Bombus dahlbohmi (Garrido and Casanueva 1995). Uropoda orbicularis modified phoretic deutonymphs are carried by other deutonymphs of the same species and by a female of Macrocheles glaber on coprophagous beetles (Bloszyk and Bajerlein 2003).

Regarding carcasses there is an example of hyperphoresy, which escaped attention. Poecilochirus subterraneus associated with Nicrophorus also practice hyper-phoresy when switching between congregated burying beetles. These are not heteromorphic deutonymphs and attach to the large mobile deutonymphs of P. carabi prompted to jump on a new beetle host (Korn 1983).

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