Keys for Identification of Immature Insects

Patricia J. Thyssen

2.1 Introduction

The study of immature insects is important in forensic entomology, because the identification of the involved species is a crucial step in calculating the post-mortem interval (PMI) and because it is the insect life stage most frequently collected from corpses. The immature stage consists of the egg, nymph or larva with its average of three or four development instars, and the pupa.

Decomposition of a dead body starts through the action of bacteria and fungi, followed by the action of a series of arthropods with a predominance of the dipteran insects (e.g., Carvalho et al. 2000, 2004). Therefore, the anatomical features of the immature stages of these insects are described and taxonomic keys utilized to identify order, family, and species of most of Brazil forensic relevant insects, with emphasis on larvae of the major Diptera families, are presented.

2.2 Anatomical Features of Dipteran Immature Stages

The most recent classification recognizes two suborders, Nematocera and Brachycera (the latter suborder include dipterans that are known as Cyclorrhapha - for classification consult McAlpine et al. 1981). The descriptions below apply to dipterans of the suborder Brachycera and the infraorder Muscomorpha.

P.J. Thyssen

Department of Parasitology, Bioscience Institute, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Distrito de Rubiao Junior, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 18618-000

J. Amendt et al. (eds.), Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, 25

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9684-6_2, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2010

Fig. 2.1 Scanning electron micrograph of the egg of a calliphorid. Scale = 100 ^m

2.2.1 Egg Morphology

The egg is the first stage of development in which a series of changes occurs before the hatching of the larvae, since the embryos contain cells and developmental programs for larval structures. A typical egg has the following external characteristics (Fig. 2.1):

• Chorion: outer covering of the egg;

• Micropyle: a pore at the anterior end of the egg that permits entrance of the spermatozoa;

• Plastron: a cell membrane inside and next to the chorion and surrounding the cytoplasm;

• Hatching line: a longitudinal strip that splits off to let the larva emerge.

2.2.2 Larval Morphology

During growth the number of molts varies among insect groups, but in some insect orders this number is rather constant (e.g., two in the muscomorph diptera). The interval between molts is known as stadium, and the form assumed by an insect during a particular stadium is termed an instar (e.g., when an insect hatches from the egg, it is said to be in its first instar) (Fig. 2.2).

The commonest shape of the larvae of muscomorph flies is basically cylindrical, with the anterior end tapering gradually to a slender, pointed head and the posterior end bluntly rounded or somewhat truncated (Fig. 2.3). The body comprises 12 segments: a head (segment I), followed by a prothoracic (segment II), a mesothoracic segment (segment III), a metathoracic segment (segment IV), followed by eight

1st instar

Ci"

2nd instar

Fig. 2.2 Development of a generalized larvae

3rd instar

Fig. 2.2 Development of a generalized larvae

abdominal segments thoracic segments

2.5 mm head abdominal segments thoracic segments

2.5 mm head pharyngeal sclerite dorsal cornu.

dorsal apodeme ventral cornu

dental intermediate sclerite sclerite acessory oral sclerite anal plate inner dorsal tubercle median dorsal tubercle outer dorsal tubercle outer ventraltubercle median ventral tubercle outer ventral tubercle

Fig. 2.3 Generalized larval structures pharyngeal sclerite dorsal cornu.

dorsal apodeme ventral cornu dental intermediate sclerite sclerite acessory oral sclerite anal plate inner dorsal tubercle median dorsal tubercle outer dorsal tubercle outer ventraltubercle median ventral tubercle outer ventral tubercle

Fig. 2.3 Generalized larval structures abdominal segments (V-XII). Posterior spiracles are found on the last abdominal segment; and in each spiracle there is a number of slits (according to larval stage) surrounded by a structure called a peritreme. Inside the larval head and extending into the thorax is a chitinous cephalopharyngeal skeleton, which consists of a number of distinct sclerites. Anterior spiracles (when present - generally appear from the second instar) are located on each side of the prothoracic segment and protrude from the body wall.

0.5 mm lateral view Fig. 2.4 Puparium of a calliphorid

2.2.3 Puparium Morphology

The puparium of the Muscomorpha is most commonly barrel-shaped, heavily scle-rotized (formed by hardening of the third instar larval cuticle), with the morphology similar to the previous instar, but smaller in length due to a retraction in the body segments (Fig. 2.4).

2.3 Taxonomic Keys

2.3.1 Key to Larvae and/or Nymphs of Hexapod Orders

This key was modified and adapted from Chu and Cutkomp (1992) (Fig. 2.5a, b and e).

1. Wing pads usually external, nymphs or naiads 2

1'. Wing pads usually internal, larvae 21

2. Chewing mouthparts 3

2'. Sucking mouthparts 18

3. Abdomen 6-segmented, a spring-like organ on the fourth Collembola

3'. Abdomen at least 9-segmented, no spring-like structure 4

4. Terrestrial 5

4'. Aquatic 13

5'. Cerci present 10

6. Parasitic on birds and some mammals; one tarsal claw Mallophaga

6'. Not parasites; two tarsal claws 7

7. Antennae long, longer than body Psocoptera

7'. Antennae often inconspicuous 8

8. Cerci minute; social insects Isoptera

Fig. 2.5 (a) Larval morphology of the different Insecta orders (adapted from Chu and Cutkomp, 1992). (b) Larval morphology of the different Insecta orders (Adapted from Chu and Cutkomp 1992)

8'. Cerci absent; solitary insects 9

9. Mandibles not sickle-shaped 17

9'. Mandibles sickle-shaped 17

10 Cerci short; with compound eyes Orthoptera

10'. Cerci long without compound eyes 11

11. Three-filamented cerci on the end of the abdomen Thysanura

11'. Two appendages on the end of the abdomen 12

12. Body not distinctly sclerotized; no wing pads Diplura

12'. Body distinctly sclerotized; with wing pads Dermaptera

13. (4') Labium much elongated as a spoon Odonata

13'. Labium normal 14

14. Cerci conspicuous 15

14'. Cerci inconspicuous 16

15. Seven or eight abdominal tracheal gills; one tarsal claw Ephemeroptera

15'. With thoracic gills; two tarsal claws Plecoptera

16. With anal hooks; mandible normal; case bearing 26

16'. Without anal hooks; mandibles sickle-like 17

17. (9) Labial palpi 2-segmented; if gills present, on the sides of the abdomen 24 17'. (9') Labial palpi if present, more than two segments; if gills present, on the ventral side of abdomen Neuroptera

18. (2') Tarsi without claws Thysanoptera

18'. Tarsi with claws 19

19. Single tarsal claw Anoplura

19'. Two tarsal claws 20

20. Proboscis arising from frontal margin of head Hemiptera

20'. Proboscis arising from hind margin of head Homoptera

21'. With thoracic legs 25

22. Head capsule not well developed; maggots Diptera

22'. Head capsule developed 23

23. Without eyes Siphonaptera

23'. Eyes present 24

24. (17) Prothorax without spiracles 25

24'. Prothorax with spiracles 27

25. (24) No distinct prolegs Coleoptera

25'. With distinct prolegs 26

26. (16) Only one pair of prolegs on abdomen, located on last abdominal segment Trichoptera

26'. Two or more pairs of prolegs on abdomen 27

27. (24') One large ocellus on each side of head Hymenoptera

27'. Two or more small ocelli on each side of head 28

28. Six to eight pairs of prolegs, without crochets Mecoptera

28'. Two to five pairs of prolegs, with crochets Lepidoptera

2.3.2 Key to larvae of major Diptera families

This key was modified and adapted from Chu and Cutkomp (1992) (Fig. 2.6a-c).

1. Mandibles move horizontally;head completeor, ifnot, the posterior portion with deep longitudinal incisions, or the thorax and abdomen together consisting of 13 segments (Suborder Nematocera) 3

1'. Mandibles move vertically; head incomplete, without a strongly developed upper arched (arcuate) plate 2

2. Maxillae well developed, palpi distinct; mandibles normally sickle-like; antennae well developed on the upper surface of a slightly arcuate, sclerotized dorsal plate (Suborder Brachycera) 17

2 ' . Maxillae poorly developed, palpi visible only in a few larvae; mandibles short and hook-like; antennae poorly developed or absent, when present situated upon a membranous surface (Suborder Brachycera, old Suborder Cyclorrhapha) 28

3. Head incomplete; thorax and abdomen combined consist of 13 segments; fleshy, pointed paired prolegs on 7 or more abdominal segments; usually with a sclerotized plate on ventral surface of mesothorax Cecidomyiidae

3' . Less than 13 segments; other characters differ 4

4. Head and thorax and first and second abdominal segments fused; larvae with minute abdominal spiracles; abdomen with a ventral longitudinal series of sucker-like discs Blephariceridae

4 ' . Head free, or if retracted within or fused with prothorax the other thoracic segments are distinct 5

5. Head complete; mandibles opposed 6

5 ' . Head incomplete posteriorly, either with three deep wedge-shaped slits (two on dorsum and one on venter), or ventral surface very poorly sclerotized and the dorsal surface posteriorly in the form of four slender heavily sclerotized rods, with a weakly sclerotized divided plate on anterior half of the dorsum (in part, see also 15) Tipulidae

6. Thoracic segments fused, flattened, and wider than abdominal segments, forming a complex mass Culicidae

6 ' . Thoracic segments distinct and not wider than abdomen 7

Fig. 2.6 (a) Larval morphology of the different Diptera families (adapted from Chu and Cutkomp, 1992). (b) Larval morphology of the different Diptera families (adapted from Chu and Cutkomp, 1992). (c) Larval morphology of the different Diptera families (Adapted from Chu and Cutkomp 1992)
Fig. 2.6 (continued)

7. Larvae with a row of spiracles on each side of body (peripneustic), or with at least rudimentary abdominal spiracles 8

7'. Larvae with spiracles on the prothorax and terminal abdominal segment (amphipneustic) or only on the terminal segment (metapneustic) 11

8. Larvae with rudimentary abdominal spiracles; mouth with a large articulated process on each side that bears a number of long hairs and closes fan-like when at rest; posterior abdominal segments dilated, the last one armed on venter with a sucker-like disc that bears concentric series of bristles Simulidae

8'. Larvae with distinct though sometimes small abdominal spiracles; mouth without fan-like processes; posterior abdominal segments not noticeably dilated, the last one without sucker-like disc 9

9. Antennae elongate; body armed with conspicuous bristles or hairs 10

9'. Antennae usually short and inconspicuous, sometimes apparently absent; body without conspicuous bristles 11

10. Posterior spiracles at the apices of a pair of long stalk-like processes Scatopsidae

10'. Posterior spiracles not noticeably elevated, situated near base of dorsal surface of posterior segment Bibionidae

11. One pair of prolegs on each of first and second abdominal segments; body U-shaped when at rest Dixidae

11'. No prolegs on abdominal segments, with possible exception on posterior segment 12

12. All or some of the dorsal segments with narrow, sclerotized strap-like transverse bands; or the apical posterior segment in the form of a short, sclerotized tube; rarely, the ventral abdominal segments bear a central series of sucker-like discs Psychodidae

12'. Dorsum without narrow; sclerotized, strap-like bands; posterior segment not in the form of a short sclerotized tube; ventral abdominal segments with suckerlike discs 13

13. Antennae undeveloped, appearing as pale round spots on side of head with sclerites contiguous anteriorly, widely separated posteriorly Mycetophilidae

13'. Not as described above 14

14. Antennae stalked (pedunculate) usually well developed; ventral surface of head with sclerites contiguous for entire length, not separated widely posteriorly 15

14'. Antennae greatly reduced; abdomen elongated and inconspicuously segmented; three pairs of prolegs with hooks present Ptychopteridae

15. Abdominal segments not subdivided 16

15'. Abdominal segments subdivided by means of transverse constrictions

Tipulidae

16. Aquatic larvae very slender, tapering toward both ends; without thoracic or anal foot-like appendages (pseudopods) or surface hairs (except about eight at apex of abdomen) or terrestrial larvae stout, with well-defined segments that are armed with strong, bristles, some of which are lanceolate; pseudopods present Ceratopogonidae

16 ' . Larvae rarely very slender, generally of an almost uniform thickness, rarely with the thoracic segments appreciably swollen but not fused; abdominal and thoracic segments frequently with rather noticeable soft hairs, the last segment almost invariably with a conspicuous tuft of hairs on dorsum near the apes; pseudopods almost always present, sometimes (very rare) only the thoracic one is distinguishable in terrestrial forms Chironomidae

17. Posterior spiracles close together, situated in a terminal or subterminal cleft or chamber, usually concealed; body surface roughened and leathery, or wholly or in part longitudinally striated 18

17 . Posterior spiracles rather widely separated, visible, situated on apical segment, which may be truncated, sclerotized, or armed with apical processes; or spiracles on second to last (penultimate) or third to last (antepenultimate) segment; body surface not roughened or visibly striated 19

18. Head not retractile; body flattened, surface finely roughened, sometimes with lateral abdominal spiracles, without vestigial pseudopods; spiracular fissure transverse, sometimes rather small; pupae enclosed in larval skin Stratiomyiidae

18 . Head retractile; body cylindrical, surface not roughened, usually longitudinally striated; abdomen with a girdle of pseudopods on each segment; spiracular fissure vertical Tabanidae

19. Posterior spiracles situated on apical segment 20

19 '. Posterior spiracles situated on penultimate or antepenultimate segment 24

20. Projecting portion of head and flattened apical plate of terminal abdominal segment heavily sclerotized, the former cone-shaped, entirely closed except at extreme apex and not retractile; the apical plate obliquely truncate and with projecting processes Xilophagidae

20 . Projecting portion of head more or less retractile, not cone-shaped, the movable portion not enclosed; apical abdominal segment without a heavily sclerotized flattened terminal plate 21

21. Apical abdominal segment ending in two long processes that are fringed with long soft hairs; abdomen with paired pseudopods and fleshy dorsal and lateral appendages (in part, see also 22) Rhagionidae

21 . Apical abdominal segment not as described above; paired abdominal pseudopods usually absent; other abdominal appendages always absent 22

22. Apical abdominal segment ending in four short pointed processes or two fleshy lips; internal portion of head with a large, arched, sclerotized upper plate, the longitudinal rods and other head (cephalic) parts are on a horizontal plane Rhagionidae

22 . Apical abdominal segment not as described above, or the internal portion of head without an arched upper plate, and the longitudinal cephalic rods and other cephalic parts meet at right angles 23

23. Apical abdominal segment without projecting processes, spiracles very small; first instar with distinct segments and two long apical bristles on abdomen; parasites of spiders Acroceridae

23'. Apical abdominal segment frequently with projecting processes; spiracles large; species live in water, mud, earth, or decaying vegetable matter Empididae or Dolichopodidae

24. Posterior spiracles situated on the antepenultimate segment; abdominal segments 1-6 subdivided, the body apparently consisting of 20 segments exclusive of the head 25

24 . Posterior spiracles situated on penultimate segment; abdominal segments simple, the body apparently consisting of 11 or 12 segments exclusive of the head 26

25. Posterior dorsal internal extension of head spatulate at apex; ventral posterior projections in the form of two short sclerotized rods Therevidae

25 . Posterior dorsal extension of head not spatulate at apex; ventral posterior projections absent Scenopinidae

26. Penultimate abdominal segment longer than ultimate, with a deep transverse depression near its apex giving it the appearance of two distinct segments; ultimate segment terminating in a sharp ridge with a median sharp point, on either side, of which dorsally and ventrally four very closely approximated hairs are situated Mydidae

26 . Penultimate abdominal segment shorter than ultimate, or if longer then without a deep transverse depression; apical segment not as describe above, the hairs not closely approximated 27

27. Thoracic segments each with two long hairs, one on each side on ventrolateral margin; apical segment with six or eight long hairs; head well developed, forward protruded, and more or less cone-shaped when viewed from above, appearing flattened when viewed from side; penultimate abdominal segment usually shorter than ultimate or not much longer; body straight when alive Asilidae

27 . Thoracic segments without hairs or, if present, they are very weak; apical segment without distinguishable hairs; head slightly protruded, directed downward, not cone-shaped, with a dorsal protuberance when viewed from side; penultimate segment distinctly longer than ultimate; body usually curved in a half circle when alive Bombyliidae

28. Parasitic 29

28 '. Nonparasitic or predaceous 33

29. Parasitic on insects and other arthropods 32

29 . Parasitic on other animals 30

30. Midle portion of body enlarged with strong spinous girdles 31

30 . Body tapering; spines minute 54

31. Parasitic under animal skin, in nasal sinuses, or in throat; large and stout larvae that parasitize rabbits and rodents Cuterebridae

31 . Parasitic as describe above, and some species can be found in animal digestive system; larvae is known as bot or warble flies Oestridae

32. Endoparasitic; portion end of body truncate with a button on posterior spiracles Tachinidae

32 '. Some species are endoparasitic 33

33. Aquatic 34

33 . Terrestrial 38

34. Body smooth, without transverse folds (plicae) or tubercles 35

34 . Body rough, with transverse plicae or tubercles 37

35. Prolegs distinct and with hooks 36

35'. Prolegs not distinct; posterior spiracles in a cavity (see also 54)

Sarcophagidae

36. Posterior spiracles knob-like on conical projections; posterior prolegs larger (see also 42' ) Anthomyiidae

36'. Posterior spiracles on a prolongation of posterior segment; 6-8 pairs of prolegs, but ventral prolegs absent Ephydridae

37. Posterior spiracles on end disks of upturned posterior segment; ventral prolegs absent Sciomyzidae

37 . Posterior spiracles contiguous; ventral prolegs present

38. Posterior spiracles contiguous or fused 39

38 '. Posterior spiracles not as described above 40

39. Saprophagous; body segments with processes Phoridae

39 . Predaceous or phytophagous; body with transverse plicae Syrphidae

40. Not associated with fungi 41

40 . Associated with fungi Platypezidae

41. Body with end (caudal), lateral, and dorsal processes 42

41 . Not as described above 43

42. Predators; body processes short Chamaemyiidae

42 . Scavengers; body with spiny or setiferous processes 43

43. Anterior (prothoracic) spiracles not adjacent 44

43 . Anterior (prothoracic) spiracles adjacent Agromyzidae

44. Posterior portion truncate or rounded 46

44 . Posterior portion somewhat elongated or terminating in two subspiracular processes; if inconspicuous processes occur, the posterior spiracles are inconspicuous and usually light-colored 45

45. Posterior spiracles on two short processes Drosophilidae

45 '. Posterior spiracles not on two short processes Piophilidae

46. Two or more mouthhooks; posterior spiracles not sinuous 47

46'. One mouthhook; posterior spiracles sinuous (Fig.2.7) Muscidae

47. Anterior (prothoracic) spiracles arranged in a circle or ellipse 48

47 '. Anterior (prothoracic) spiracles never so arranged Tephritidae

48. End portion with four or more processes 52

48 '. Not described above 49

49. Posterior spiracles conspicuous, deeply pigmented 51

49'. Not described above 50

50. Posterior spiracular slits oval Chloropidae

50'. Posterior spiracular slits elongate Tephritidae

51. Posterior spiracles with a distinct pointed process on the dorsal margin of ring Psilidae

51'. Not as described above Otitidae

52. Posterior spiracles on elevated projections Sepsidae

52'. Posterior spiracles sessile 53

53. Slits of posterior spiracles slender and long 54

53'. Slits of posterior spiracles short and radial Anthomyiidae

54. Slits of posterior spiracles nearly transverse, button almost always distinct (Fig.2.7); posterior spiracles not in a cavity (Fig.2.8) Calliphoridae

54'. Slits of posterior spiracles nearly vertical, button indistinct (Fig.2.7); posterior spiracles are enclosed within a deep cavity (Fig.2.8) Sarcophagidae

Fig. 2.7 Posterior spiracles of major Diptera families found on corpses

Fig. 2.8 Posterior aspect of a sarcophagid larvae (a) and a calliphorid larvae (b). The posterior spiracles of sarcophagid larvae are enclosed within a deep stigmal cavity

Fig. 2.8 Posterior aspect of a sarcophagid larvae (a) and a calliphorid larvae (b). The posterior spiracles of sarcophagid larvae are enclosed within a deep stigmal cavity

2.3.3 Key to Third Instar Larvae of the Most Carrion Breeding and Feeding Dipteran Species from Brazil

This key was produced by reference to specimens in the author's own collection. Other keys and descriptions by the following authors were also consulted: Zumpt (1965), Ishijima (1967), Prins (1982), Greenberg and Szyska (1984), Smith (1986), Erzinclioglu (1987), Queiroz and Carvalho (1987), Liu and Greenberg (1989), Guimaraes and Papavero (1999), Wells et al. (1999), Greenberg and Kunich (2002), and Thyssen and Linhares (2007).

2.3.3.1 Nomenclature according to Fig. 2.3

1. Larvae with an obvious head that is sclerotized and clearly differentiated from the rest of the body; body flattened; mouthhook moving vertically, parallel to each other like a pair of hooks Hermetia illucens(Stratiomyiidae)

1' . Larvae without an obvious head, which merges with the rest of the body although the mouthparts may be obvious 2

2. Surface of the body segments with obvious fleshy or spinous processes 3

2 ' . Surface of the body segments without processes, although the integument itself may have strong spines 5

3. Body flattened dorsoventrally and with numerous projections 4

3' . Body cylindrical 5

4. Each projections with short and broad spines on the basal portion Fannia canicularis(Fanniidae)

4'. Each projections with large branches; lateral part of segment 12 with three feather-like large projections, with more than five forked branches Fannia scalaris(Fanniidae)

5. Larger longer pointed fleshy processes laterally and dorsally ending up in a tuff of hairs or crown of spines strongly pigmented on the apex; posterior spiracles in a cleft on posterior face of anal segment and consisting of flattened plates with three slits Chrysomya albiceps(Calliphoridae)

5 ' . Small white, slightly flattened larvae up to 4 mm long with short processes on the dorsal and lateral surfaces; posterior spiracles on brown, sclerotized tubercles, each with a narrow opening Megaselia scalaris(Phoridae)

6. Posterior spiracles are enclosedin a deep cavity Peckia(Pattonella)

intermutans(Sarcophagidae)

6' . Posterior spiracles not enclosed in a deep cavity 7

7. Peritreme of posterior spiracle complete, although sometimes weaker in the region of button 8

7 ' . Peritreme of posterior spiracle incomplete and not enclosing button, or it is sometimes indistinct 13

8. Slits of posterior spiracles strongly sinuous; inner surface of anal plate covered with small spines; anal plate surrounded by small spines Musca domestica(Muscidae)

8 '. Slits of posterior spiracles straight or at most arcuate 9

9. Slits of posterior spiracles almost parallels; anterior spiracles with 10 lobes; anal segment with ventral lobes much longer than the dorsal lobes Piophila casei(Piophilidae)

9 '. Peritreme with button distinct 10

10. Slits of posterior spiracles bent distally (3 o'clock position); posterior margin of ventral surface of segment 10 with a row of numerous small spines; anterior margin of anal plate convex and posterior margin concave, lateral part of anal plate bent posteriorly Ophyra chalcogaster(Muscidae)

10 '. Accessory oral sclerite absent 11

11. Posterior dorsal margin of segment 11 withoutrows of spines Lucilia eximia(Calliphoridae)

11'. Posterior dorsal margin of segment 11 with rows of spines 12

12. Inner dorsal tubercles of the posterior region separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to the distance between the inner and median dorsal tubercles; very few spines present dorsal to anus Lucilia sencata(Calliphoridae)

12 '. Inner dorsal tubercles of the posterior region separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to the distance between the inner and outer dorsal tubercles; strong patch of spines present dorsal to anus Lucilia cuprina(Calliphoridae)

13. Posterior margin of segment 11 without dorsal spines; in other segments of the body, spines multipointed, each with at least two teeth (sometimes up to four); the teeth are well separated from one another and having rounded tips; main tracheal trunks leaving anterior spiracles are not black-pigmented

Cochliomyia macellaria(Calliphoridae)

13'. Posterior margin of segment 11 with dorsal spines; button distinct or indistinct 14

14. All spines single-pointed and small ...Sarconesia chlorogaster(Calliphoridae)

14'. Spines single or multipointed 15

15. Lateral fusiform areas absent; with accessory dental sclerite 16

15 '. Lateral fusiform areas present; with or without accessory dental sclerite 17

16. Spines single and multipointed, especially large and numerous ventrad on segment 12; peritreme is moderately sclerotized with delicate peritreme; anal plate well extended Hemilucilia semidiaphana(Calliphoridae)

16 '. Spine pattern follows the described above;peritremeis strongly sclerotized;

a littledistinguished button; anal plate is short Hemilucilia segmentaria(Calliphoridae)

17. With accessory dental sclerite Compsomyiops spp. (Calliphoridae)

17 '. With or without accessory dental sclerite 18

18. Spine pattern on anal protuberance convex or bell-shaped; mouthhook devoid of accessory oral sclerite; anterior spiracleswith 10-12 branches Chrysomya puioria(Calliphoridae)

18 '. Spine pattern on anal protuberance V- or U-shaped 19

19. Mature third instar blue-gray; devoid of accessory oral sclerite Paralucilia /ulvinoia(Calliphoridae)

19 '. Mature third instar non-pigmented and with accessory dental sclerite 20

20. Mouthhook with the tooth-like apical portion longer than greatest depth of the basal portion; accessory oral sclerite present between the mouthhook; peritreme complete and posterior spiracles smaller and separated by a distance equal to or greater than the width of a single spiracle Calliphora vicina(Calliphoridae)

20'. Mouthhook with small accessory oral sclerite and comma-shaped; peritremes of the posterior spiracles separated one from the other by a distance equal to approximately one-third to one-half the diameter of one of the peritremes; anterior spiracles with 8-10 short branches Chrysomya megacephala(Calliphoridae)

References

Chu HF, Cutkomp LK (1992) How to know the immature insects. WCB, USA, p 346

Carvalho LML, Thyssen PJ, Linhares AX, Palhares FB (2000) A checklist of arthropods associated with carrion and human corpses in southeastern Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95(1):135-138

Carvalho LML, Thyssen PJ, Goff ML, Linhares AX (2004) Observations on the succession patterns of necrophagous insects onto a pig carcass in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil. Aggrawal's Int J For Med Toxicol 5:33-39

Erzinclioglu YZ (1987) The larvae of some blowflies of medical and veterinary importance. Med Vet Entomol 1:121-125

Greenberg B, Szyska M (1984) Immature stages and biology of fifteen species of Peruvian Calliphoridae (Diptera). Ann Entomol Soc Am 77:488-517

Greenberg B, Kunich JC (2002) Entomology and the law: flies as forensic indicators. Cambridge University Press, USA, p 356

Guimaräes JH, Papavero N (1999) Myiasis in man and animals in the Neotropical region. Pleiade/ FAPESP, Sao Paulo

Ishijima H (1967) Revision of the third stage larvae of synanthropic flies of Japan (Diptera: Anthomyiidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae). Japanese J San Zool 18:48-100

Liu D, Greenberg B (1989) Immature stages of some flies of forensic importance. Ann Entomol Soc Am 82:80-93

Mc Alpine, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds) (1981) Manual of Neartic Diptera, vol 1. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ottawa

Prins AJ (1982) Morphological and biological notes on six South African blow-flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and their immature stages. Ann S Afr Mus 90:201-217

Queiroz SMP, Carvalho CJB (19S7) Chave pictórica e descriçoes de larvas de 3° instar de Díptera (Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Fanniidae) em vazadouros de resíduos sólidos domésticos em Curitiba, Paraná. An Soc Entomol Brasil 16:265-288 Smith KGV (1986) A manual of forensic entomology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 205 Thyssen PJ, Linhares AX (2007) First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Biol Res 40:271-280 Wells JD, Byrd JH, Tantawi TI (1999) Key to third-instar Chrysomyinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

from carrion in the continental United States. J Med Entomol 36:638-641 Zumpt F (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the old world. Butherworths, London 267

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