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Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! Continue reading...

Bump To Birth Summary


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The Movement For Birthing

More and more research is showing that having your baby naturally can help both you AND your child later in life, and cause a better pregnancy than one that is focused around drugs and doping the mother until she can't feel a thing. Penelope is a natural birth expert and knows exactly how to make sure that you have the pregnancy and birth that you actually deserve, instead of going through a lot of pain that you should not have to deal with. Her method makes birth much more manageable and even pleasurable for both you AND your baby. This online course goes into far more detail than the advice that too many courses offer; there is no nonsense about passive relaxation This course teaches you what to DO when you're about to have a baby. You will also learn the exercises that you need to know to strengthen your body. For childbirth Come into the birth prepared and ready!

The Movement For Birthing Summary

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Accessory Glands Of Females

Viviparous insects use accessory glands to provide nourishment directly to developing offspring. Tsetse flies and sheep keds are dipterans that retain single larvae within their reproductive tracts and provide them with nourishment. They give birth to mature larvae ready to pupate. The gland that produces the nourishing secretion, rich in amino acids and lipids, is known as the milk gland. The Pacific beetle roach, Diploptera punctata, is also viviparous and provides its developing embryos with nourishment secreted by the brood sac, an expanded portion of oviduct.

The biology of insects

Most insects start life in an egg stage. The act of egg laying is called oviposi-tion.The reproductive adult females of many species lay their eggs specifically in the area where the offspring will feed. For example, greenhouse whiteflies lay their eggs on the foliage where the immatures will feed, and fungus gnats oviposit on the surface of the soil or growing medium where the larvae will develop. Insects have specialized organs called ovipositors for depositing the eggs in the appropriate location (figure 3).Some ovipositors are internal except during oviposition (as with most flies) others are external and very obvious (as with crickets and ichneu-monid wasps). A few insects, such as aphids, give birth to live young.

Historic Roots and Importance of Mites

In one of the first reports of modern forensic entomology, Brouardel describes the case of a newborn child that was found as a mummified body in January 1878 (Benecke 2001 Brouardel 1879). The time of death was independently estimated based on caterpillars and mites present on the corpse. The caterpillars were studied by Perier and identified as belonging to the genus Aglossa and might have been A. caprealis (Pyralidae, Lepidoptera), also known as murky meal moth, fungus moth, small tabby, or a similar species. The moth would have infested the corpse the summer before. For the mites, Megnin was consulted. The corpse was covered with large quantities of mite feces and exuviae, the skins that are cast during moulting, which produced a brownish layer on top of the body. Large numbers of a single mite species, Tyroglyphus longior, now known as Tyrophagus longior (Acaridae, Astigmata), were present inside the cranium. Megnin estimated that the entire corpse carried about 2.4 million mites,...

Phoretic Mites Separated by Carrier and Time

Similarly, representatives of the families Histiostomatidae and Glycyphagidae (Astigmata) are known to disperse by heteromorphic deutonymphs and hypopus types. Mites of the genus Pelzneria (Acaridae, Astigmata) are found in large numbers under the elytra of Nicrophorus beetles and synchronise with the life cycle of their carrier. Due to the haplodiploid genetic system common to Histiostomidae, the specialised deutonymphs must be females and must disembark from the parent beetles. The newly developed females will give birth asexually to sons who will fertilise their mothers. The next generation of female phoronts need to be ready only at the moment of the emergence of the next generation of adult beetles.

Behavior And Reproduction

Nearly all female cockroaches put their eggs in a pillow-like capsule. Each capsule may have just a few to nearly 250 eggs, aligned in two rows. In some species the female carries the egg capsule on the tip of her abdomen for several days or weeks and then later leaves or buries them near a good supply of food and water. Some species can draw the capsule into the abdomen for short periods of time, to protect it. In other species, the capsule is kept in the abdomen until the eggs hatch inside the mother. The larvae are then born as they leave the mother's body. A few Australian cockroaches do not produce an egg capsule, but the eggs are kept inside the body. Only one species, Diploptera punctata, gives birth to live young. Its eggs are kept inside the body without a capsule and are nourished, or fed, by the mother's body until they are born. Most cockroaches never see their young. But in some species the larvae gather in a group under the mother, where they remain for a short period of...

Some Explanations For Variations In Size

The size of female insects often determines their fecundity, which may be manifested in giving birth to many small offspring or a smaller number of large ones. To be able to produce many large offspring, which may be adaptive for survival in a harsh environment, the female herself must be large. The importance of size for female fecundity can often be seen in the sexual dimorphism of insect species, in which males typically are much smaller than females.

Stochastic Demography General Background

Stochasticity may be introduced into insect population models in basically two ways. The first is referred to in population biology as demographic stochasticity. The difference between this approach and the deterministic one is that in the deterministic model each member of the population gives birth to some tiny fraction of an individual in each small interval of time (May, 1975). But in the stochastic model only whole animals are born with specified probabilities. Goodman (1987) notes that a population goes extinct when its last member dies and that this death may be due to chance alone. Similarly, the population is reduced to its last member when its second to last member dies, and this death may also be due to chance alone. The central questions regarding demographic stochasticity have to do with the extent to which chance alone plays a role in population change. Clearly at low population levels a single event may constitute the addition or subtraction of a substantial part of the...

Insects and the Gondwana Hypothesis

Marsupials (that is mammals giving birth to immature young ones, which have to be kept in a special pocket on the belly of the mother for allowing them to develop further, constituting the Subclass Metatheria) are in Australia and South America. Their presence in Central America and south part of North America is due to their northward dispersal, just as ostriches extend their range into the Arabian countries. Survival of marsupials only in these two southern continents has been attributed to their long isolation from other land masses in geological history, and consequent absence of competition with higher and more successful forms in these continents.

Psyllids Whiteflies Aphids and Scale Insects Suborder Sternorrhyncha

Most aphids have a complex life cycle, involving bisexual and parthenogenetic ( ) generations, winged and wingless individuals or generations, and often a regular alternation of food plants. Aphids generally overwinter as eggs, which hatch in the spring into wingless females that reproduce parthenogenetically (without fertilization) and give birth to young (rather than eggs). Two or more generations of such females may be produced a generation of winged females eventually appears that usually migrate to a different food plant. These winged females also reproduce parthenogenetically, giving birth to young. Late in the season winged forms return to the original food plant, and

Insects The Ultimate Survivors

Insects have been around for more than 400 million years. Dinosaurs (non-avian) only lasted 180 million. What determines how long families, genera, and species survive When biological and physical events impact a species so that the death rate continuously exceeds the birth rate, that life form has begun a downward spiral towards extinction. Ultimately a low population threshold is reached where recovery is impossible and the fate of the species is sealed. That loss has a ripple effect throughout the ecosystem, the severity of which depends on the importance of the species. Demise of a keystone species invokes the greatest aftermath the cessation of one with global distribution has worldwide consequences, producing a cascade effect throughout the species range. Depending on the organism's importance, the effect can be short or long term, but nothing disappears from the earth without producing some change.

Phylogeny And Classification

Their trophic diversity and numerical abundance make the Diptera an important component in many ecosystems, both as primary consumers and as a food resource for other organisms. Trophic diversity is reflected in the wide range of larval feeding habits, which encompass nearly every category. In some groups (e.g., asilids, most empidids), larvae and adults belong to the same trophic category in other groups (e.g., simuliids, tachinids) these life stages usually adopt different feeding strategies in still others, feeding can be restricted to only the larvae or adults (e.g., chironomids, hippoboscids, and nycteribiids). The latter comprise primarily the so-called Pupipara, in which the females are hematophagous and do not lay eggs and instead give birth to fully formed larvae (i.e.,viviparous development). In addition to the above-mentioned variety of feeding habits, some groups may feed on multiple food resources during the same life stage (e.g., larvae that can be both saprophagous and...

Behavior And Ecology

When the gravid female is ready to give birth, she assumes a position known as stilting., in which she raises the anterior part of her body and forms a birth basket with her pedipalps and first two pairs of legs. While she maintains this posture, the young emerge one at a time from the genital aperture and drop into the birth basket. From there they clamber onto their mother's back. The birth time for an individual varies from 1 min up to about an hour, with the total birth process lasting from less than 12 hr to as long as 3 days.


Each female aphid reproduces for a period of 20-30 days, giving birth to 60-100 live nymphs.The nymphs look like the adults but are smaller.The nymphs mature and can produce offspring within a week at greenhouse temperatures.Winged females that can migrate are produced when the food supply becomes short or the area becomes overcrowded. Males and eggs are produced only in northern areas, in response to colder temperatures and shorter days. Aphids overwinter as eggs outdoors in northern areas, but in greenhouses will continue to develop year-round.

Fig 97 E

Boch the wmgless and the winged individuals of th s second ge neration are also parthenogenetic, and they give birth to a thir d generation like themselves, including wingless, half- wmged, and fully winged forms, but During the early part of the summer, the rate of product' > n rapidly increases in the aphid colonies, and individual of the summer generations sometimes give birth to young a week after they themselves were born In the fall, however, the period oi gi owth again is lengthened, and the families drop off in size until the last females of the season produce each a scant half dozen young, though they may live to a much greater age than do the summer individuals. The young summer aphids born as active insects are inclosed at birth in a tight-fitting, seamless, sleeveless, and legless tunic, as are those hatched from the winter eggs Thus swathed, each emerges, rear end first, from the body of the mother, but is finally held fast by the face when it is nearly free In this...


Female cockroaches give birth in different ways. They normally encapsulate their eggs in groups of few to many within a hard, darkly pigmented case (ootheca), which is deposited in the proper environment. Some retain the case in the birth canal where it often remains partly extruded until the young hatch. Others keep it entirely within the abdomen, and the nymphs hatch inside the mother, spending up to several days in a kind of uterus before being born alive.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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