Contents

List of color plates, viii List of boxes, x

Preface to the third edition, xii

Preface to the second edition, xiv

Preface and acknowledgments for first edition, xvi

1 THE IMPORTANCE, DIVERSITY, AND CONSERVATION OF INSECTS, 1

1.1 What is entomology? 2

1.2 The importance of insects, 2

1.3 Insect biodiversity, 4

1.4 Naming and classification of insects, 8

1.5 Insects in popular culture and commerce, 9

1.6 Insects as food, 10

1.7 Insect conservation, 13 Further reading, 20

2 EXTERNAL ANATOMY, 21

2.1 The cuticle, 22

2.2 Segmentation and tagmosis, 28

2.4 The thorax, 38

2.5 The abdomen, 45 Further reading, 48

3 INTERNAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 49

3.1 Muscles and locomotion, 50

3.2 The nervous system and co-ordination, 56

3.3 The endocrine system and the function of hormones, 59

3.4 The circulatory system, 61

3.5 The tracheal system and gas exchange, 65

3.6 The gut, digestion, and nutrition, 68

3.7 The excretory system and waste disposal, 77

3.8 Reproductive organs, 81 Further reading, 84

4 SENSORY SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIOR, 85

4.1 Mechanical stimuli, 86

4.2 Thermal stimuli, 94

4.3 Chemical stimuli, 96

4.4 Insect vision, 105

4.5 Insect behavior, 109 Further reading, 111

5 REPRODUCTION, 113

5.1 Bringing the sexes together, 114

5.2 Courtship, 117

5.3 Sexual selection, 117

5.4 Copulation, 118

5.5 Diversity in genitalic morphology, 123

5.6 Sperm storage, fertilization, and sex determination, 128

5.7 Sperm competition, 128

5.8 Oviparity (egg-laying), 129

5.9 Ovoviviparity and viviparity, 135

5.10 Atypical modes of reproduction, 135

5.11 Physiological control of reproduction, 138 Further reading, 139

6 INSECT DEVELOPMENT AND LIFE HISTORIES, 141

6.1 Growth, 142

6.2 Life-history patterns and phases, 143

6.3 Process and control of molting, 153

6.4 Voltinism, 156

6.5 Diapause, 157

6.6 Dealing with environmental extremes, 158

6.7 Migration, 161

6.8 Polymorphism and polyphenism, 163

6.9 Age-grading, 164

6.1G Environmental effects on development, 166 6.11 Climate and insect distributions, 171 Further reading, 175

7 INSECT SYSTEMATICS: PHYLOGENY AND CLASSIFICATION, 177

7.1 Phylogenetics, 178

7.2 The extant Hexapoda, 18G

7.3 Protura (proturans), Collembola (springtails), and Diplura (diplurans), 183

7.4 Class Insecta (true insects), 184 Further reading, 199

8 INSECT BIOGEOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTION, 201

8.1 Insect biogeography, 2G2

8.2 The antiquity of insects, 2G3

8.3 Were the first insects aquatic or terrestrial? 2G8

8.4 Evolution of wings, 2G8

8.5 Evolution of metamorphosis, 211

8.6 Insect diversification, 213

8.7 Insect evolution in the Pacific, 214 Further reading, 216

9 GROUND-DWELLING INSECTS, 217

9.1 Insects of litter and soil, 218

9.2 Insects and dead trees or decaying wood, 221

9.3 Insects and dung, 223

9.4 Insect-carrion interactions, 224

9.5 Insect-fungal interactions, 226

9.6 Cavernicolous insects, 229

9.7 Environmental monitoring using ground-dwelling hexapods, 229

Further reading, 23 7

10 AQUATIC INSECTS, 239

1G.1 Taxonomic distribution and terminology, 24G

1G.2 The evolution of aquatic lifestyles, 24G 1G.3 Aquatic insects and their oxygen supplies, 241

1G.4 The aquatic environment, 245

1G.5 Environmental monitoring using aquatic insects, 248 1G.6 Functional feeding groups, 249 1G.7 Insects of temporary waterbodies, 25G 1G.8 Insects of the marine, intertidal, and littoral zones, 251 Further reading, 261

11 INSECTS AND PLANTS, 263

11.1 Coevolutionary interactions between insects and plants, 265

11.2 Phytophagy (or herbivory), 265

11.3 Insects and plant reproductive biology, 281

11.4 Insects that live mutualistically in specialized plant structures, 286

Further reading, 29 7

12 INSECT SOCIETIES, 299

12.1 Subsociality in insects, 300

12.2 Eusociality in insects, 304

12.3 Inquilines and parasites of social insects, 318

12.4 Evolution and maintenance of eusociality, 320

12.5 Success of eusocial insects, 324 Further reading, 324

13 INSECT PREDATION AND PARASITISM, 327

13.1 Prey/host location, 328

13.2 Prey/host acceptance and manipulation, 334

13.3 Prey/host selection and specificity, 338

13.4 Population biology - predator/parasitoid and prey/host abundance, 345

13.5 The evolutionary success of insect predation and parasitism, 347

Further reading, 353

14 INSECT DEFENSE, 355

14.1 Defense by hiding, 356

14.2 Secondary lines of defense, 359

14.3 Mechanical defenses, 360

14.4 Chemical defenses, 360

14.5 Defense by mimicry, 365

14.6 Collective defenses in gregarious and social insects, 369

Further reading, 373

15 MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, 375

15.1 Insect nuisance and phobia, 376

15.2 Venoms and allergens, 376

15.3 Insects as causes and vectors of disease, 377

15.4 Generalized disease cycles, 378

15.5 Pathogens, 3 79

15.6 Forensic entomology, 388 Further reading, 393

16 PEST MANAGEMENT, 395

16.1 Insects as pests, 396

16.2 The effects ofinsecticides, 400

16.3 Integrated pest management, 403

16.4 Chemical control, 404

16.5 Biological control, 407

16.6 Host-plant resistance to insects, 417

16.7 Physical control, 420

16.8 Cultural control, 420

16.9 Pheromones and other insect attractants, 421

16.10 Genetic manipulation of insect pests, 422 Further reading, 423

17 METHODS IN ENTOMOLOGY: COLLECTING, PRESERVATION, CURATION, AND IDENTIFICATION, 427

17.1 Collection, 428

17.2 Preservation and curation, 431

17.3 Identification, 440 Further reading, 443

Glossary, 445

References, 469

Index, 477

Appendix: A reference guide to orders, 499 Color plates fall between pp. 14 and 15

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