Further Reading

Binnington, K. & Retnakaran, A. (eds.) (1991) Physiology of the Insect Epidermis. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne. Carroll, S.B. (1995) Homeotic genes and the evolution of arthropods and chordates. Nature 376, 479-85. Chapman, R.F. (1998) The Insects. Structure and Function, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Daly, H.V. (1985) Insect morphometrics. Annual Review of

Entomology 30,415-38. Danks, H.V. (ed.) (1994) Insect Life Cycle Polymorphism: Theory, Evolution and Ecological Consequences for Seasonality and Diapause Control. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.

Dingle, H. (1996) Migration. The Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press, New York.

Hayes, E.J. & Wall, R. (1999) Age-grading adult insects: a review of techniques. Physiological Entomology 24, 1-10.

Heming, B.-S. (2003) Insect Development and Evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Kerkut, G.A. & Gilbert, L.I. (eds.) (1985) Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vols. 7 & 8, Endocrinology I and II. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Moran, N.A. (1992) The evolution of aphid life cycles. Annual ReviewofEntomology 37, 321-48.

Nagy, L. (1998) Changing patterns of gene regulation in the evolution of arthropod morphology. American Zoologist 38, 818-28.

Nijhout, H.F. (1999) Control mechanisms of polyphenic development in insects. BioScience 49, 181-92.

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C. et al. (1999) Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399, 579-83.

Pender, M.P. (1991) Locust phase polymorphism and its endocrine relations. Advances in Insect Physiology 23, 179.

Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (eds.) (2003) Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press, Amsterdam. [Particularly see articles on cold/heat protection; development, hormonal control of; diapause; embryogenesis; imaginal discs; molting.]

Sander, K., Gutzeit, H.O. & Jäckle, H. (1985) Insect embryogenesis: morphology, physiology, genetical and molecular aspects. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vol. 1: Embryogenesis and Reproduction (eds. G.A. Kerkut & L.I. Gilbert), pp. 319-85. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sehnal, F. (1985) Growth and life cycles. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vol. 2: Postembryonic Development (eds. G.A. Kerkut & L.I. Gilbert), pp. 1-87. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sutherst, R.W. & Maywald, G.F. (1985) A computerized system for matching climates in ecology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 13, 281-99.

Worner, S.P. (1988) Ecoclimatic assessment of potential establishment of exotic pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 81,9731-83.

Papers and references in European Journal of Entomology (1996) 93(3), especially: Bale, J.S., Insect cold hardiness: A matter of life and death (pp. 369-82); Lee, R.E., Costanzo, J.P., & Mugano, J.A., Regulation of supercooling and ice nucleation in insects (pp. 405-18).

Chapter 7

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