6.1 The cryptic adult moths of four species of Acronicta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): A. alni, the alder moth (top left); A. leporina, the miller (top right); A. aceris, the sycamore (bottom left); and A. psi, the grey dagger (bottom right) (D. Carter and R.I. Vane-Wright).

6.2 Aposematic or mechanically protected caterpillars of the same four species of Acronicta: A. alni (top left); A. leporina (top right); A. aceris (bottom left); and A. psi (bottom right); showing the divergent appearance of the larvae compared with their drab adults (D. Carter and R.I. Vane-Wright).

6.3 A blister beetle, Lyttapolita (Coleoptera: Meloidae), reflex-bleeding from the knee joints; the hemolymph contains the toxin cantharidin (sections 14.4.3 & 15.2.2) (T. Eisner).

6.4 One of Bates' mimicry complexes from the Amazon Basin involving species from three different lepidopteran families - Methona confusa confusa (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) (top), Lycorea ilione ilione (Nymphalidae: Danainae) (second from top), Patia orise orise (Pieridae) (second from bottom), and a day-flying moth of Gazera heliconioides (Castniidae) (R.I. Vane-Wright).

6.5 An aposematic beetle of the genus Lycus (Coleoptera: Lycidae) on the flower spike of Cussonia (Araliaceae) from South Africa (P.J. Gullan).

6.6 A mature cottony-cushion scale, Iceryapurchasi (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), with a fully formed ovisac, on the stem of a native host plant from Australia (P.J. Gullan).

6.7 Adult male gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), from New Jersey, USA (D.C.F. Rentz).

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