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FIGURE 2 (A) A heavily sclerotized elateriform larva (lateral). (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae of Insects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.) (B) An elongate, legless, vermiform "wormlike" larva. (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae of Insects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.)

FIGURE 4 A legless, peg-shaped maggot of the higher flies. (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae oflnsects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.)

FIGURE 5 A baglike ant larva. It and other similar larvae are commonly called "grubs." (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951 Larvae oflnsects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.)

FIGURE 3 A C-shaped scarabaeiform larva, Phyllophaga (lateral). (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951, Larvae oflnsects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.)

FIGURE 5 A baglike ant larva. It and other similar larvae are commonly called "grubs." (Reproduced from A. Peterson, 1951 Larvae oflnsects, Vol. 2, with permission of Jon A. Peterson.)

Vermiform larvae (Fig. 2B) are "wormlike." This is an ill-defined term, but it is generally applied to an elongate, legless larva with or without a conspicuous head. Maggots (Fig. 4) are the larvae of higher Diptera. Their shape is peg-like and tapering toward the anterior end. They are legless, have a greatly reduced head (no head capsule), and have conspicuous mouthhook(s). The posterior end bears a pair of conspicuous spiracles.

Grub (Fig. 5) is an imprecise term that is often applied to "comma-shaped" larvae with or without legs or having greatly reduced legs. This term is commonly applied to weevil larvae and other Coleoptera larvae and to many larvae of the higher Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) that often have reduced or inconspicuous heads and appendages.

See Also the Following Articles

Caterpillars • Cocoon • Eggs • Metamorphosis • Pupa and Puparium

Further Reading

Stehr, F. W. (ed.) (1987) "Immature Insects," Vol. 1. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA.

Stehr, F. W. (ed.) (1992). "Immature Insects," Vol. 2. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA.

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