Biological Control

Biological control uses predators, parasitoids, and pathogens to reduce an insect pest's population to an acceptable level. Because primary parasitoids are considered beneficial, hyperparasitoids may interfere with such programs. It has been the policy in biological control to exclude "exotic" (nonindigenous) obligate hyperparasitoids by enforcing quarantine procedures during importation. It is less easy to decide what to do with "exotic" facultative hyperparasitoids when no exclusively primary parasitoids are available, and so perhaps admitting these could be beneficial. Such dilemmas are evaluated with caution, and the solution depends on the seriousness of the insect pest problem. On the other hand, "indigenous" hyperparasitoids (whether obligate or facultative) already exist in the ecosystem and may or may not interfere with the beneficial "exotic" primary parasitoid.

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