Development

The eggs (diameter 0.7-1.3 mm) are deposited into crevices of rocks or bark, and this stage lasts 60 to 380 days. Developmental stage I (first free-living larva) has a distinct prognathy, a strong forward projection of parts of the maxillae (laciniae), which aids in emergence from the egg, and rod-like setae on the head and the terga. These features disappear after the first molt. From developmental stage III onward, a scale cover is present in all terga and on abdominal coxites and caudal appendages. The molts continue during adult life.

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