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killing agent. Walls of boards can also be erected narrowing to the opening of the pitfall to direct arthropods to the pit.

7. Beating sheet—A square of bed sheet or similar white cloth placed under a bush or tree to catch insects when they are knocked off after the plants are struck with a large stick, such as an axe handle. Insects are then collected by aspirator or forceps.

8. Aspirator—A tube plugged with a rubber cork in which are inserted two tubes: one bent and used to point at tiny insects; the other connected to a rubber tube for inhaling quickly to suck the insect into the tube. The latter one has a tiny screen attached to the inside end to prevent insects from getting into one's mouth.

9. Berlese funnel—A commercial funnel of any size is needed, equipped with a screen inserted just above the narrow spout to prevent material from falling out. Leaf litter, birds' nests, and other organic matter are put into the funnel, which is mounted on a rack or ring stand. A light bulb is placed over the top to dry out the organic material, driving arthropods downward as they seek moisture. Insects then fall through the screen and into a jar of 70% alcohol placed under the spout. The Berlese funnel is left in place until the organic matter is completely dried out.

10. Relaxing box—A tight container (plastic refrigerator boxes are excellent) is chosen in a size needed. Cut or fold paper toweling to line the bottom of the box at least 1 cm deep. Moisten the paper thoroughly with water, but leave no water standing. Add a small amount of an anti-mold chemical such as paradichlorobenzene or carbolic acid (phenol). Place a piece of stiff cardboard above the wet paper as a platform for the specimens. Freshly killed insects, or dried ones you wish to pin or spread, can be softened in the box. If left in the "relaxer" too long, however, they may mold or turn mushy and disintegrate.

11. Killing jar—A glass or plastic jar of desired size can be made into a killing jar by putting about a 1-cm layer of plaster of Paris in the bottom, or use just a pad of absorbent material such as cellucotton, cotton, or soft tissue. A fluid killing agent such as ethyl acetate or fingernail polish remover containing acetone is added to be absorbed by the plaster or other material. Be sure not to have any fluid on the walls of the jar, or specimens will be spoiled. If you use cotton or other absorbent material, cut a cardboard disk to separate the insects from the pad of killing agent.

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