Life History And Host Trees

The gypsy moth female lays a single egg mass (Fig. 1), usually on the stems of trees, and she covers the eggs with her body hairs. The egg mass typically contains from 100 to 600 eggs. The eggs are laid in midsummer, but overwinter in this stage. Larvae developing within the egg enter diapause and hatch the following spring at the time of host-tree budbreak. Emerging larvae climb to the tops of trees, where many of them spin down on silken threads and are borne away by the wind. If larvae land on an acceptable host tree, they begin feeding. They develop through five instars for males or, frequently, six for females throughout May and June. Beginning in the fourth instar, larvae seek resting locations during daylight hours, either in the forest litter at the base of trees or under bark flaps on tree stems. They usually pupate in these same locations. The adults emerge after about 12 days in the pupal stage. Soon after eclosion, the female releases a sex pheromone from a gland on the tip of her abdomen. Males locate females by flying upwind when they detect the pheromone. After mating, the female lays her egg mass, often just a few centimeters from where she eclosed, and dies soon thereafter. There is one generation per year.

Gypsy moth larvae feed on a wide range of tree species. Favored tree species include oaks (Quercus spp.), aspen (Populus spp.), and, in Japan, Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis. Gypsy moth outbreaks occur in forests that are dominated by these species. Gypsy moth will feed on many other tree species, such as maple (Acer spp.) and many conifers, but significant damage to these trees usually occurs only in gypsy moth outbreaks, when more favored hosts have already been defoliated. If defoliation is complete, most deciduous hardwood trees will put out a new set of leaves. Most trees will survive one defoliation, but if outbreaks persist for several years in a row, a significant proportion of the trees may die. Trees that survive defoliation suffer growth loss in subsequent years.

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