Migration And Dispersal In The United States

Boll weevil is a migratory pest, and its movement is largely dependent on wind direction and speed. It has been known to travel as far as 272 km and can hitchhike on cars, trucks, and trains. Boll weevil was first reported in the United States in the fall of 1894 from Brownsville, Texas, and may have been established as early as 1892. By 1895, the weevil had spread north to San Antonio and eastward to Wharton, Texas. The weevil reached Louisiana in 1903, Mississippi in 1907, and Georgia by 1916; by the 1920s it had infested cotton throughout the Mississippi Delta and the southeastern United States, and by 1922 had become established almost to the northern limits of cotton production. Northern and western portions of Texas became infested as a result of a sequence of expansions of the pest range between 1953 and 1966. Arizona was plagued with problems from the boll weevil beginning in the late 1970s, and in 1982 the weevil was detected in the southern desert valleys of California. The weevil became established in New Mexico in the early 1990s.

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