Muscle Attachments

The muscles that act on the exoskeleton are connected to the basal surface of the epidermal cells by means of desmosomes. The muscular forces are transferred through the cells by a rich array of microtubules, running in parallel from the basal to the apical surface of the cells, where they attach to tonofil-aments stretching into the cuticular material. The muscles are often attached to infoldings of the exoskeleton, the apodemes, which can stretch deep into the body of the insect, allowing larger muscles to act on the same skeletal region.

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