Oviposition and Nymphal Development

Females lay eggs singly or in batches, usually either by inserting them into plant tissue or by depositing them on plant surfaces [Figs. 3(14), 3(15), and 4(16)]. In some groups, eggs are deposited in the soil or in litter. Egg batches may be covered with plant debris, wax filaments, or secretions produced by various internal glands. Eggs may or may not undergo diapause depending on the species and climate. After hatching, the juveniles [nymphs, Figs. 2(9), 3(13), 3(15), 4(20), and 4(21)] undergo five molts prior to reaching the adult stage. In most species the nymphs feed on aboveground parts of host plant, but in cicadas, Cercopidae, a few fulgoroid families, and a few leafhopper genera, the nymphs are subterranean root feeders. Formation of galls, common among aphids and psyllids, is known in only one Auchenorrhyncha species (a leafhopper). Nymphal development requires from a few weeks to several years (in cicadas), depending on the species. Some species exhibit parental care behavior (see later).

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