Predators And Parasitizers

Vertebrate predators such as skunks, raccoons, birds, and moles may dig in infested areas to feed on the grubs. Indigenous predatory insects, including ants and ground beetles, feed on the eggs and young grubs. Birds, fish, and other insectivores eat the adults. From 1920 to 1933, entomologists searched for, and imported, numerous natural enemies from Asia and released them for biological control in areas infested with Japanese beetles. Only a few of these became established. The most widely distributed are two species of tiphiid wasps, Tiphia vernalis and T. popilliavora, whose larvae are ectopara-sitoids of the grubs, and Istocheta aldrichi, a tachinid fly that parasitizes the adults. The grubs are susceptible to parasitic nematodes, as well as several lethal microbial pathogens, especially the milky disease bacterium, Paenibacillus popilliae.

See Also the Following Articles

Introduced Insects • Regulatory Entomology • Soil Habitats Further Reading

Fleming, W. E. (1968). Biological control of the Japanese beetle. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1383.

Fleming, W. E. (1972). Biology of the Japanese beetle. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1449.

Loughrin, J. H., Potter, D. A., Hamilton-Kemp, T. R., and Byers, M. E. (1996). Role of feeding-induced plant odors in aggregative behavior of the Japanese beetle. Environ. Entomol. 25, 1188—1191.

Potter, D. A., and Held, D. W. (1999). Absence of food-aversion learning by a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica, following intoxication by geranium, Pelargonium hortorum. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 91, 83—88.

Potter, D. A., and Held, D. W. (2002). Biology and management of the Japanese beetle. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47, 175—205.

Vittum, P. J., Villani, M. G., and Tashiro, H. (1999). "Turfgrass Insects of the United States and Canada." 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

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