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AChE

Acetylcholine receptors

FIGURE 2 Schematic diagram of a nerve synapse showing examples of insecticide resistance mechanisms: (1) changes in the structure of the sodium channel confer kdr or super-kdr target-site resistance to pyrethroids; (2) modified AChE is no longer bound by organophosphates and remains available to break down acetylcholine molecules after neurotransmission across the synapse; (3) detoxifying enzymes degrade or sequester insecticides before they reach their targets in the nervous system.

Carbamate Organophosphate molecules

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