The Future

Insects perform essential roles in forests as part of these complex ecosystems. However, when transplanted from one forest habitat to another, or when the natural forest habitat is disturbed, their role in the ecology of the forest may change. For example, the eastern five-spined ips, I. grandicollis, generally infests stressed or diseased trees in its native habitat in the southeastern United States and is not considered a primary agent of tree mortality. Its introduction into Australia in the mid-20th century has resulted in significant tree mortality. This beetle infests many pine species throughout the eastern United States but is now infesting a Californian pine, Monterey pine, in Australia. Efforts have been made to find biological control agents in North America that are effective in Australia. Increased global transport of forest products undoubtedly will result in introductions of both pestiferous and potentially pestiferous insects into different parts of the world. Ongoing efforts to reduce this occurrence are essential if we are to maintain forest habitats that meet environmental and economic goals. Furthermore, research that addresses environmentally sound methods for the integrated management of forest pests is essential if humans are to minimize their indirect impacts on forest habitats resulting from the introduction of new insect species. Some insect outbreaks are important natural processes in forests, whereas others are the product of human activities. Recognizing the causes of outbreaks, detecting signs of imminent outbreaks, and having appropriate management options available help to ensure the viability of forest habitats and the environmental and economic benefits they provide.

See Also the Following Articles

Biological Control • Gypsy Moth • Phytophagous Insects • Soil Habitats

Further Reading

Bevan, D. (1987). "Forest Insects: A Guide to Insects Feeding on Trees in

Britain." Forestry Commission, London. [Handbook 1] Coulson, R. N., and Witter, J. A. (1984). "Forest Entomology, Ecology and

Management." Wiley—Interscience, New York. Dajaz, R. (2000). "Insects and Forests." Lavoisier, Paris. Drooz, A. T. (ed.) (1985). "Insects of Eastern Forests." U.S. Department of

Agriculture, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1426. Furniss, R. L., and Carolin, V. M. (1977). "Western Forest Insects." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339.

Johnson, W. T., and Lyon, H. H. (1988). "Insects That Feed on Trees and

Shrubs," 2nd edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. McCullough, D. G., Werner, R. A., and Neumann, D. (1998). Fire and insects in northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43, 107-127. Paine, T. D., Raffa, K. F., and Harrington, T. C. (1997) Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and live host conifers. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42, 179-206. Speight, M. R., and Wainhouse, D. (1989). "Ecology and Management of Forest Insects." Clarendon Press, Oxford.

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