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La biota bromel cola excepto anfibios y reptiles. Hist. Nat. Costa Rica 1 45-62. Laessle, A. M. 1961. A micro-limnological study of Jamaican bromeliads. Ecology 42 499-517. Murillo, R. M.,J. G. Palacios, J. M. Labougle, E. M. Hentschel, J. E. Ll rente, K. Luna, P. Rojas, and S. Zamudio. 1983. Variaci n estacional de la entomofauna asociada a Tillandsia spp. en una zona de transici n bi tica. Southwest. Entomol. 8 292-302. Picado, C. 1913. Les brom liac es piphytes consid r e...

Caddisflies

Caddisflies populate all types of freshwater habitats in Latin America, both in running waters (springs, streams, waterfalls, seeps, rivers) and standing waters (lakes, ponds, marshes, pools). Some Phylloicus develop in the leaf axils of bromeliads. A few Atanato-lica move out to the moist margins of seeps and are virtually terrestrial (Holzenthal 1988). The immatures are somewhat similar to lepidopterous larvae but with the abdominal prolegs restricted to the terminal segment and bearing anal...

Desert Darklings

Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae, Nycteliini, The arid coastal areas of Chile and Peru, including the great Atacama, and the dry steppes of southern South America in general are home to an assemblage of endemic darkling beetles specifically adapted to hot, dry places, much like members of their tribal relatives in the deserts of southern Africa and the southwestern United States. They are small to moderate-sized (BL 15-25 mm) tenebrionids, mostly dull black and hard shelled. They tend to have...

Harlequin Beetle

Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Acrocinini, Acrocinus longimanus. Spanish Escarabajo arlequ n. Portuguese Arlequim da mata (Brazil). French Mouche bagasse. Jak tree borer (Trinidad). The gaudy, harlequin pattern of black, olive, and coral crescents and bars and the outlandishly long forelegs of the males im Figure 9.14 LONG-HORNED BEETLES (CERAMBYCIDAE). (a) Metallic longhorn (Psalidogna-thus friend ). (b) Three-lined fig tree borer (Neoptychodes trilineatus). (c) Harlequin beetle (Acrocinus...

Climate and Medium

Each climatic factor exerts its critical effects in a variety of ways temperature as freezing point, highs, lows, means, ranges, heat, cold, daily fluctuations moisture as rainfall, dew, fog, clouds (and, of course, by determining the fundamental life-supporting media, aquatic versus terrestrial) sunlight as day and night, shade, illumination, radiation, and photoperiod. All act over long time periods as weather Figure 2.1 MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC AREAS OF LATIN AMERICA (from Sauer 1950 and Sick...

Domestic Silk Moth

Spanish Gusano de seda (larva). Portuguese Bicho da seda (Brazil, larva). Little needs to be said regarding this species as a part of the Neotropical fauna. It is a totally domesticated animal, cultured since ancient times in the Orient for the production of silk, and quite incapable of surviving without intense human protection and care. The species has been introduced into various parts of Latin America repeatedly by capitalists with visions of establishing profitable...

Insects And Human Culture

Aside from their importance as pests and our academic interest in insects, these creatures, spiders, and related arthropods have considerable influence in that portion of human activity that may be called the humanities music, art, literature, language, religion, and folklore (fig. 1.8). The study of these influences is a general area of insect study called cultural entomology (Hogue 1987). Examples appear among historical, modern, and indigenous peoples. (Some of the more general are cited...

Control Of Insect Pests

Under natural conditions, insect numbers are controlled by various means, principally by climatic strictures and by predators, parasites, parasitoids, and disease (Aguilar 1989, Strong 1984). Insects living in unwanted proximity to humanity and competing with people for food and fiber require artificial control (Martin and Wood cock 1983). Practical (applied or economic) entomologists have devised a great many strategies to deal with pest species. Today, eradication is not the goal, as in the...

Scorpions

Spanish Escorpiones (General), alacranes. Portuguese Escorpi es, lacraus (Brazil). Nahuatl Colomeh, sing, c totl (Mexico). Scorpions (Polis 1990, Williams 1987) are characterized by their eight legs, a pair of large pinchers or pedipalps (like lobster claws) at the front, and a much smaller but heavy pair of jaws (chelicerae) around the mouth. On the underside, a pair of comblike pectines are conspicuous structures. The main body is divided into a large front trunk segment,...

Assassin Bugs

These are mostly medium to large bugs of varied form but always with a narrowly attached, elongate head that bears a flexible, segmented beak and fairly long antennae. At rest, the beak fits neatly into a pronounced furrow on the underside of the head which has microscopically visible cross striations on its inner surface. In many species, the forelegs are modified for grasping small insect prey. The prothorax is trapezoidal and often bears sharp spines at its outer corners. The abdomen is...

Measuring Worm Moths

Measuring worms (inchworms, medidores) are the caterpillars of the family Geometridae, a large family (4,452 species Heppner in press) in the Neotropics of mostly small to medium (WS 1-3 cm), drably or cryptically marked moths. Their wings are generally large in proportion to the body and display a great range of outline shape and color perhaps most are brown or gray, but there are many green species. A few adults are mimetic, such as Atyria dicroides, which resembles net-winged beetles and...

Threelined Fig Tree Borer

Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Monochamini, Adults of this medium-sized longhorn (BL 22-29 mm females, 14-21 mm males) (fig. 9.14b) are commonly seen resting on the leaves and feeding on the bark of Ficus and other tropical trees in the genera Alnus, Morus, Chlorophora, and of mango, which are the larval hosts as well (Horton 1917). They are clearly recognized by their rather long antennae (held out laterally from the body and about 2.5 times the length of same) and gray and orange-splotched elytra,...

Ground Beetles

This is one of the largest and most common beetle families, respresented in the Neotropics by at least 4,400 described species (Erwin et al. 1979). Carabids generally shun light and live in protected niches on the ground, beneath stones, logs, or other objects, and scurry to protection if exposed. However, some are gaudily colored, diurnal, and run about exposed on logs. Such are Lebia, whose larvae prey on the immatures of similar-appearing leaf beetles, and Eurycoleus, which enter into...

Crickets

Spanish Grillos (General). Portuguese Grilos (Brazil). Although many orthopteroids produce highly audible and complex sounds, it is the crickets that are best known for their musical talents. Males can make a variety of notes, most characteristically, a series of short, pulsed chirps or continuous soft trilling, more melodious and less rasping than the calls of katydids. The sound is produced by the vibration of membranous areas of the fore wings. These are set into motion when the...

Strongyline Darklings

Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae, Strongylini. Some of the world's most spectacular darkling beetles belong to this tribe, which attains its greatest diversity in the wet, tropical parts of South America. They are mostly medium to large (BL 1 3 cm) and often brilliantly hued in metallic blue, green, or shiny black base colors. Many species are spotted with bright red, yellow, orange, or blue. A number of dull black and white species are strongly convex and broad (Cuphotes fig. 9.2j), resembling and...

Giant metallic ceiba

Spanish Catzo (Ecuador). Portuguese Mae do sol, olho do sol (Brazil). This species, common from Mexico to Argentina, is the largest in its family (BL 6-7 cm) and like its relatives, brilliantly colored in glowing metallic hues (Hespen-heide 1983) (fig. 9.10e, pi. lh). The rugose el tra are generally shining green but pro- fused throughout with red the back of the prothorax bears two large black spots side by side. Freshly emerged specimens are covered with a...

Giant Water Bugs

Belostomatidae, Lethocerinae, Lethocerus. Spanish Cucarachas del agua (General). Portuguese Baratas d'agua (Brazil). Electric light bugs, toe biters. Belonging to a cosmopolitan f amily, this genus has speciated prolifically in Latin America. There are nearly twenty distinct species, mostly in the genus Lethocerus (Menke 1963). The two species L. maximus (fig. 8.5a) and L. grandis are among the largest of insects with a body length up to 11.5 centimeters and weight of 15 to 25 grams. All are...

Owlet Moths

Spanish P jaros nocturnas (General). Millers. This is the most familiar and the largest family of moths yet it is poorly known in Latin America, and many species await discovery. For this reason, the number of species can only be guessed at about 10,000. They form a varied assemblage, occurring throughout all the geographic regions and in most habitat types. The majority are nocturnal and are usually seen when they come to artificial lights. Most are medium-sized (WS 2 4 cm) and...

Dung scarabs

Scarab Dung Roller

Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae ( Coprinae). Feeding on feces is a fundamental feature of the biology of this scarab subfamily which determines behavior, distribution, morphology, and development. Adults are attracted to fresh animal excrement by its odor and feed directly on it or remove portions on which to lay their eggs and provide for larval nutrition (Halffter and Edmonds 1982). The fact that this food source abounds principally in grasslands has largely determined the prevalence of these...

Headlight Beetles

Spanish Cocujos (General), carbunclos (Costa Rica), cucubanos (Puerto Rico). Portuguese Pirilampos (Brazil). Flying candles, fire beetles, peeny wallys. Headlight beetles are large click beetles, notable in their unique ability among click beetles to produce light. An intense glow emanates from two round luminescent organs on the prothorax (the headlights) and a broad area on the underside of the first abdominal segment. In flight, both sexes produce a...

Spiders

Spanish Aranas. Portuguese Aranhas. Quechua Vilca-kuna. Tupi-Guarani Nhandui. Nahuatl Tocameh, sing, tocatl (Mexico). Spiders (Foelix 1982, Gertsch 1979, Pre-ston-Mafham and Preston-Mafham 1984) comprise a large and very familiar group and are fascinating and diverse in Latin America (Robinson 1984). The abdomen is almost always unsegmented and narrowly attached to the cephalothorax by a stalk. The chelicerae are modified into fangs connected to internal poison...

Fossil Insects

Known Latin American fossil insect sites are few, but they have produced considerable material representing several types of fossilization. Most represent relatively recent strata (Cenozoic). Impressions in sedimentary rock from the Eocene in South America are most significant (Martinez 1982). One of the best known beds is found at Sunchal, Argentina, in the province of Jujuy. Many specimens of weevils and other insects were excavated there by entomologist T. D. A. Cockerell early in this...

Mites And Ticks

Eutrombicula Morphology

The mites are the most diverse and species-rich group of arachnids and also the most difficult to characterize (Krantz 1978, Hughes 1959, Flechtmann 1975). Most are very small, some minute (BL 1 to 2 mm). The body is fused into one piece, with no separation between the prosoma and unseg-mented opisthosoma (abdomen), and usually has an ovoid shape, somewhat flattened in most ticks, elongate or quadrate in some mites. The mouthparts extend from a partial, headlike structure anteriorly, formed...

W

Argiopidae Per

Spanish Tar ntulas, ara as peludas (General), matacaballos (Mexico, Central America). Portuguese Tar ntulas, caranguejeiras (Brazil). Jupi-Guarani Nhanduguag . Mygalomorphs, bird spiders. This family is renowned for the enormous size of many of its members. The largest are males of Theraphosa labloncLi (fig. 4.2a), which have a leg span as great as 25 centimeters. Specimens are known also with body lengths of 12 centimeters and with anterior femoral diameters up to 8 millimeters...

Whiplash Beetles

Staphylinidae, Paederinae, Paederini, Paederus. Spanish Zorritos (Peru), bichos de fuego (Argentina) corallilos (Guatemala) jallapas (Bolivia) picajuis (Venezuela). Portuguese Potos, potos i P'mentas, trepas moleque (Brazil). en these beetles walk on human skin, y sometimes deposit a caustic liquid from glands on the last abdominal segment which produces pustulent dermatitis (Frank and Kanamitsu 1987), although more often the effects are caused by hemolymph from accidentally crushed beetles...

Medical Entomology

Many insects, spiders, mites, myriapods, and other arthropods are medically important, acting either as agents of harm to humans or as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. This is such an important aspect of our existence that several textbooks treat the subject from an overall perspective in considerable detail (Faust et al. 1962 Flechtmann 1973 Horsfall 1962 James and Harwood 1969 Kettle 1984 Smith 1973). Regional discussions are also available for Argentina (del Ponte 1958), Brazil (Pinto...

Centipedes

Escolopendras (General) alacranes (Puerto Rico). Portuguese Centop ias, lacraias (Brazil). Nahuatl Petlazolcoameh, sing, petlazolcoatl (Mexico). Scolopenders. Centipedes (Kaestner 1968 356 388, Lewis 1981) are slender, very elongate, and many segmented arthropods, resembling millipedes only in a very general way. They are distinguished by bodies with only one pair of legs per segment. The latter are clearly distinct, not fused into pairs. The number of segments varies from 15 to 181 no species...

Other Scarabs

Males of several additional horned scarabs (Dynastinae) are renowned for their large size and elaborately developed horns. The black pan beetle (Enema pan), aside from its facetious name, is noteworthy for its enormity (BL 5 cm), tanklike shape, and forward-curving thoracic horn into whose apical fork a great head horn fits (fig. 9.10a). The great horned scarab (Megaceras jasoni chorinaeus) is similar, but the base of the prothoracic projection is massive, with wide set apical horns (fig....

Insect Names

All known organisms, including insects and their relatives, have a scientific name, and many also have a common name (Goto 1982). Scientific names are applied according to rigorous procedures (Ride et al. 1985), with consistency, universality, and stability as primary considerations. Each species must bear a unique Latinized two-part epithet (for subspecies, three-part), consisting of a genus and specific name, for example, for the common housefly, Musca domestica. Species are grouped into a...

Giant Dayflying Moths

Spanish Catarinetas (Peru). Portuguese Brocas gigantes (Brazil, larvae). These, the largest of the mimetic moths (WS 8-18 cm), are easily distinguished from similarly colored types by the hind wing vein structure (see mimetic moths, above). They also have conspicuously clubbed antennae. They are very fast, evasive day or crepuscular fliers and are difficult to catch. The body is heavy and tough and the wing scales coarse, characteristics apparently countering their violent...

Giant Jawed Sawyers

Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Ancistrotini, Macrodontia. French Mouches scieur de long, mouches cafe (Guadeloupe). Sawyer beetles. Six species make up this genus of unique, large longhorns, but only three are at all well known. Macrodontia ceruicornis (fig- Figure 9.13 LONG-HORNED BEETLES (CERAMBYCIDAE). (a) Giant jawed sawyer (Macro-dontia cervicornis). (b) Big jawed sawyer (Macrodontia dejeani). (c) Bearded imperious sawyer (Callipogon barbatum), male, (d) Giant imperious sawyer (Callipogon...

Burrowing Flea

Spanish Nigua, chique (General). Portuguese Bicho de pe, bicho de porco, jatecuba (Brazil). Indian Sika, tunga (Brazil). French Chique. Chigoe, jigger, sand flea. Unlike other fleas, females of this species work their way into the skin of their hosts and encyst, enlarging to several times their original size, up to the size of a small pea (3-5 mm diameter) (fig. 7.3g). The male, which is mobile and active throughout its life, copulates with the female after she has...

Sphinx Moths

Spanish and Portuguese Esfinges. Spanish Gusanos con cachos, gusanos cornudos (General, larvae). Hummingbird moths, hawkmoths (adults). Hornworms (larvae). The most characteristic feature of this family of large (WS 5-15 cm) moths is their hovering flight, with elongate wings vibrating at high frequency (25 40 per second), in front of tubular flowers from which they siphon nectar with extra long proboscises. (Wing and proboscis length variations among species are prime indications...

Pyralid Moths

The remaining moths are all members of a large and economically important family. They are mostly small, but some are medium-sized with rather long labial palpi that project forward in front of the head. They have tympana, whose cavities open forward on the underside of the abdomen near the base. Many species fold their wing curiously, rolling them or otherwise doubling them to emulate sticks and other innocuous objects. Pyralidae, Chrysauginae, Cryptoses choloepi. For a long time, an erroneous...

Wild Silk Moths

Giant silk moths, saturnians. These elegant moths inspire admiration and awe because of their great size (WS up to 20 cm, as in Arsenura ponderosa) and sumptuous color designs on broad wings. They are most often seen around electric lights, to which most are strongly attracted. Males bear highly developed, featherlike antennae that are extremely sensitive to the airborne molecules of the female sexual pheromones. With these organs, they may detect a female over a distance of...

Shag Moths

Limacodidae ( Eucleidae, Cochlididae). Spanish Cornegachos (Peru), gusanos rat n (Central America, larvae). Portuguese Lagartas aranha (Brazil, larvae). J varo Bayucas (Peru, larvae). The adults of this family (Dyar 1935) are drab (sometimes green or with silver Figure 10.11 MOTHS, (a) Flannel moth (Megalopyge lanata, Megalopygidae). (b) Flannel moth, larva, (c) Flannel moth (Megalopyge sp.), larva, (d) Shag moth (Acharia nesea, Limacodidae). (e) Shag moth (Acharia sp.), larva, (f) Monkey slug...

Katydids

Spanish Esperanzas (General), pulpones (Costa Rica), langostas verdes (Argentina), saltamontes nocturnos (Panama), grillos voladores (Peru). Portuguese Esperanzas. Katydids are also called long-horned grasshoppers and indeed resemble those orthop-terans except for their very long, many-segmented, whiplike antennae. They may be fully winged and capable of flight, or they may have very short wings, the hind wing completely lost and the fore wings stubby. When wings are present, an...

Tiger Moths

Spanish Gatas peludas (larvae). Portuguese Largatas cabeludas (Brazil, larvae). Certainly these are the most flamboyantly colored and varied single family of moths in the Neotropics. Unbelievably garish and gorgeous, polychromatic combinations of florid hues are juxtaposed in kaleidoscopic arrays on the fore wings of many species (seldom also on the hind wings, which are more usually drably monochromatic). These color arrangements have protective functions, either as...

Thysanurans

Thysanurans are considered to comprise the most primitive order of true insects because of their complete winglessness, weak sclerotization, and presence of vesti-pal, jointed appendages on the underside of the abdomen. Immatures grow gradually into adults without appreciable change in form i.e., no metamorphosis . They also bear three long, many-jointed tails extending from the tip of the abdomen, and the equal thoracic segments have rather large lateral lobelike expansions. They are generally...

Agave Worms

Cossidae, Cossinae, Comadia redtenbacheri, and Megathymidae, Aegialinae, Aegiale hesperiaris. Spanish Gusanos del maguey. Nahuatl Meocuilin. In the central, dry highlands of Mexico, potent fermented beverages have been made from the sap of various species of agave plants since prehistoric times. During the harvesting of the sap, when the center leaves are cut open, the larvae of these two lepidopterans are commonly found and collected along with the fluid. Curiously, although similar, they were...

Chewing Lice

As its name implies, this order is characterized by having mandibulate mouthparts. Chewing lice consume feathers, hairs, and other cutaneous material, including blood, if accessible dried from wounds, etc. , and sebaceous secretions. These are more heavily sclerotized than the sucking lice, with well-defined abdominal sclerites and comparatively rigid body. In the majority of species, the head is relatively large, wider than the prothorax, and freely...

Leaf beetles

Spanish San Juanes, pololos Chile, metallic green types . This is an immense family with over 12,000 species in the Neotropics. Adults range in size from very small BL 1.5 mm to moderate BL 20-22 mm and are of varied body form. Although some species resemble long-horned beetles all tarsi with apparently four segments , most are oval or much flattened, and they never have antennae longer than half their body length. They are often brightly colored, spotted or striped, and many are...

Stinkbugs

Spanish Conchuelas General . Portuguese Persevejos do mato, Marias fetidas Brazil . As their name implies, stinkbugs have well-developed and very effective repugna-torial glands and are known as much by their smell as by their physical attributes. Among the latter are a broadly oval or shield-shaped body with a large, triangular central plate scutellum in the middle of the back. The lateral corners of the prothorax and posterolateral corners of the abdominal segments are often...

Bedbugs 227

Ana region, the review by Nieser 1975 is widely applicable. The general Latin American literature is compiled in the bibliographies of Bachman 1977 , Nieser 1981 , and Polhemus 1982 . Andersen, N. M. 1982. The semiaquatic bugs Hemiptera, Gerromorpha , phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography and classification. Ento-monograph 3 1-455. Bachmann, A. O. 1977. Heteroptera. In S. H. Huribert, ed., Biota acu tica de sudam rica austral. San Diego State Univ., San Diego. Pp. 189-212. Nieser, N. 1975. The...

Tiger Beetles

Portuguese Tiger beetles Pe a 1969, Pearson 1988 are aggressive and efficient predators both as adults and as larvae, hence their common name. They are small to middle-sized beetles BL 6 40 mm , with a distinctively large head wider than the prothorax, which is itself much narrower than the rest of the body , conspicuous, bulbous eyes, and scythelike, grossly toothed mandibles. They often have strong patterns and in many instances display very beautiful iridescent...

Planthoppers

Lattin For Flying Rodent

This is a large and highly diverse group in the tropics throughout the world Nault and Rodriguez 1985 . The Neotropical species are not well known but already number some 498 genera and 2,794 species O'Brien pers. comm. , and new forms are being found continually. They are mostly small BL 10 mm or less and difficult to characterize anatomically because of their varied body types. Fairly constant features, however, are antennae that arise on the sides of the head beneath the eyes and a small...

Ecosystems

Not only the vegetation but the community of all the plants, insects, and other animals must be considered together to describe the conditions of a particular habitat. The organisms biocenoses located in a particular place biotope constitute an ecosystem. Within the ecosystem, each organism has a functional role niche . The niches of insects in Latin America have been little studied, other than in agricultural monocultures. Habitats are recognizable on different levels. The most immediate...

Horned Scarabs

Spanish Cucarrones Colombia . Horned scarabs may weigh up to 40 grams and be as bulky as a human fist. Including the anteriorly projecting horns, many attain body lengths of 12 to 13 centimeters. In these, the development of the horns varies much through disproportionate allometric growth, although they tend to sort into two extreme size categories Eber-hard 1987 . Smaller individuals normally have very poorly formed horns the larger individuals have tremendously...

Darkling Beetles

Spanish Cucarachas martina Peru , pinacates Mexico . This is an extremely varied group, but most are dark-colored, dull black or brown beetles, characterized by four-segmented hind tarsi, the other tarsi being five segmented. The antennae are usually threadlike or slightly to strongly clubbed, and they have notched eyes. The edge of the prothorax is often ridged or sharp, and the elytra are smooth to ridged, with lines of pits or crudely roughened. They are common in all...

Dobsonflies

Spanish Perros del agua larvae, Mexico . This is a small order, related to the Neuroptera Penny 1977, 1983 . There are two families, the large Corydalidae BL 8 12 cm, wingspan to 16 cm and the much smaller Sialidae BL to 25 mm . The Corydalidae dobsonflies are widespread and dominant in mainland Latin America only a single Antillean species on Dominica , with 7 genera and 47 species. Protochau-liodes and Archichaulides are found in southern Chile and have their congeners in...

Fireflies

Spanish Luci rnagas, ciegos General . Portuguese Vagalumes, cagalumes, cagafogos, mamo s Brazil . Quechua Aya ahui adult , pichin kuro larva Peru . For romanticists, fantasists, poets, and mythmakers, fireflies have always provided inspiration Lenko and Papavero 1979 . These unique insects are invariably afforded a beneficient position for their service in punctuating the dreaded darkness with happy light, like the stars to which they are allegorically attached The Pleiads, rising...

Sucking Lice

Sucking lice resemble biting lice but are immediately distinguished by modification of the mouthparts into stylets for sucking blood from their mammal hosts. None are found on birds. In general, they also are less well sclerotized than other lice, the abdomen having an elastic cuticle, with small, dorsal abdominal sclerites, allowing for considerable distension during feeding. Hosts include most major groups of placental mammals, excepting, most notably, the bats, anteaters, and aquatic groups,...

Giant Fungus Beetles

Species in the genus Erotylus fig. 9.21 are the most frequently observed members from this diverse family. They are moderate-sized BL 2 3 cm beetles with an elliptical body and often strongly convex even conical elytra. The latter are brightly colored with red or yellow spots or zigzagging colored lines running transversely across a black field. The family has been neglected by biologists, and little is known regarding its natural history. The beetles are diurnal, traversing the ground or...

Chilean Stag Beetle

Spanish Ciervo volante, cantabria, cacho de cabra Chile . Mapuche Llico-llico Chile . This beetle achieved notoriety as a result of its inclusion in Darwin's discussion of sexual selection in his The Descent of Man. He knew the species from his visit to southern Chile, the male of which he described as bold and pugnacious, and when threatened he faces round, opens his great jaws, and at the same time stridulates loudly. But the mandibles were not strong enough to pinch my...

Millipedes

Portuguese Gongolos, piolhos de cobra Brazil . Like centipedes, which they superficially resemble, millipedes gain their name from an abundance of legs. Two pairs arise from most apparent segments, a condition created by embryonic fusion of alternate body somites, each carrying one pair of legs, a pair of tracheal openings, and a ventral nerve cord ganglion, to form double somites diplosomites . The resulting secondary segment diplosegment , therefore, has two...