For reviewing sections and offering criticisms and information on many topics, I have been fortunate to have the expert assistance of many specialists. I am greatly indebted to the individuals named below for information, identifications, and countless improvements in the manuscript (the appearance of their names does not necessarily imply agreement with my final interpretations and statements): J. Richard Andrews (Nahuatl names), Arthur G. Appel (cockroaches), Phillip A. Adams (Neu-roptera), Richard W. Baumann (Plecop-tera), Vitor Becker (Lepidoptera), Jackie Belwood (Orthoptera), Harry Brailovsky (bugs), A. Brindle (Dermaptera), Jacob Brodzinsky (fossils), Lincoln P. Brower (butterflies), John C. Brown (Lepidoptera), Richard C. Brusca (Crustacea, arthropod anatomy), Gary R. Buckingham (useful insects), James L. Castner (Orthoptera), Gilbert L. Challet (aquatic beetles), John A. Chemsak (Cerambycidae), James C. Coken-dolpher (harvestmen), Julian P. Donahue (Lepidoptera), John T. Doyen (darkling beetles), Richard D. Durtsche (study), W. D. Edmonds (dung scarabs), George F. Edmunds, Jr. (mayflies), K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga), Marc E. Epstein (Lepidoptera), Terry L. Erwin (beetles), Arthur V. Evans (beetles), Eric M. Fischer (Diptera), Oliver S. Flint, Jr. (Trichoptera), Will Flowers (aquatics), Manfredo A. Fritz (Sphe-coidea), Richard C. Froeschner (Hemip-tera), David G. Furth (ecology), Rosser W. Garrison (Odonata), P. Genty (palm pollinators), Edmund Giesbert (Cerambyci-

dae), Eric E. Grissel (Chalcidoidea), Robert J. Gustafson (botany), Alan R. Hardy (Scar-abaeidae), Brian R. Harris (butterflies), Steven Hartman (mantids), Henry A. Hes-penheide (beetles), Frank T. Hovore (Cer-ambycidae), Chistopher A. Ishida (practical entomology), D. K. McE. Kevan, deceased (orthopteroids), James E. Keirans (ticks), John E. Lattke (general), Claude Lemaire (Saturniidae), Herbert W. Levi (spiders), James E. Lloyd (Lampyridae), Wilson R. Lourenfo (scorpions), Richard B. Loomis, deceased (chiggers), Robert J. Lyon (gall wasps), Volker Mahnert (pseu-doscorpions), Sergio Martinez (fossils), Mildred E. Mathias (botany), Eustorgio Méndez (medical entomology, parasites), Arnold S. Menke (Cynipidae and other Hymenoptera), Edward L. Mockford (pso-cids), Jacqueline Y. Miller (Castniidae), Michael J. Nelson (medical entomology), David A. Nickel (orthopteroids), M. W. Nielson (leafhoppers), Lois B. O'Brien (Ho-moptera), David L. Pearson (tiger beetles), Stewart B. Peck (cave insects), Norman D. Penny (Neuroptera and general), Don R. Perry (canopy insects), Manuel L. Pescador (mayflies), John T. Polhemus (aquatic Hemiptera), Diomedes Quintero Arias, Jr. (whip scorpions), Shivaji Ramalingam (mosquitoes), Edward S. Ross (Embiidina), H. F. Rowell (Acrididae), Raymond E. Ryckman (ectoparasitic bugs), Ann L. Rypstra (spiders), Jorge A. Santiago-Blay (scorpions), Jack Schuster (Passalidae), Terry N. Seeno (beetles), Rowland M. Shelley (myriapods), David R. Smith (Symphyta), Roy R. Snell-

ing (Hymenoptera), Omelio Sosa, Jr. (history), Paul J. Spangler (aquatics), Lionel A. Stange (Neuroptera), Orley R. Taylor (honeybee), Donald B. Thomas (heterop-terans and veterinary entomology), Carlos Trenary (history), Fred S. Truxal (No-tonectidae), Alan Watson (Lepidoptera), Thomas K. Wood (Membracidae), A. Will-ink (history and study), Stephen L. Wood (Scolytidae), and Thomas J. Zavortink (mosquitoes).

For suggestions and information on diverse or multiple topics, I also have many other entomologists to thank, including, José Artigas, Tomás Cekalovic, Ana Lia Estévez, Carlos H. W. Flechtmann, Luis F. Jirón, Alberto and Beatriz Larraín, Carlos Machado Allison, and Irene Rut-Wais.

There are several colleagues who are responsible for more pervasive involvement in the work as a whole, who have reviewed and contributed to the entire manuscript, to whom I owe a special debt of gratitude: Terry L. Erwin, Arthur V. Evans, Gerardo Lamas, Jack Longino, Scott E. Miller, José Palacios-Vargas, Nelson Papavero, and Allen M. Young. For tolerance of my many probings of their knowledge and points of view, I am particularly appreciative of the contributions of Julian P. Donahue, Chris Nagano, Roy R. Snelling, and Fred S. Truxal.

I am also indebted to the many local friends and contacts I have made on my Latin American travels—guides, foresters, farmers, Native Americans, and many others, too numerous to name, who freely shared their firsthand field knowledge of insects and thus contributed to the originality of this book in countless ways.

To all who worked with the manuscript primarily in an editorial capacity, I wish to express gratitude, especially to Ernest Cal-lenbach. Several librarians contributed in no small way by finding and interpreting many difficult areas of the literature: Nicole Bouché, Katharine E. S. Donahue, Jennifer Edwards, Donald McNamee, Kathy Showers (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History) and Nancy Axel-rod (University of California, Berkeley, Entomology Library). The preparation of the ink drawings were greatly assisted by Leland E. Dietz and his Xerox machine. My appreciation is also due to Don Meyers for his careful and considerate handling of my black-and-white photographic needs, as well as to Tracy Robertson and James Robertson for other technical assistance with the figures.

I thank James L. Castner, George Dodge, and James N. Hogue for allowing me to use those color photographs bearing their names in the captions.

Finally, I acknowledge my wife, Barbara, for her critical role in helping this task to completion, primarily her enormous patience with my needs for time and other of our mutual resources. She also typed most of my original drafts and did a great deal of editing. For these contributions, not only extended here but lovingly provided in support of most of my entomological career, I dedicate this book to her.

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