The Crustacea (Bliss 1982-, Schram 1986) are essentially marine, but many have become adapted to fresh water, and some live in moist places on land. Structurally, they are characterized primarily by the presence of biramous appendages, including mandibles whose grinding surface is served by the inner surface of the second primitive segment (gnathobasic jaws). The first-stage nauplius larva, a simple swimming form with three pairs of appendages and a single median eye, is a unique stage found only in this group of arthropods.

Crustaceans are extremely diverse and widespread in the sea. Only a few types are habitually terrestrial and appropriately included here.


Bliss, D. E., ed. 1982-. The biology of the erustaeea. Vols. 1—9. Academic, New York. Schräm, F. R. 1986. Crustacea. Oxford, New York.

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