Of fundamental importance to the occurrence of insect life is the surface character of the land, its configuration, chemistry, and relief, or its physiography, which provides footholds for the very existence and continuity of individuals. Equally basic are the conditions of climate, that is, temperature, moisture, sunlight, as well as the conditions of the medium (soil, water, or atmosphere), which give suitable substance and support for life. These components of geography work together to create broad habitats for insects called life zones. From a consideration of the historical geography of the flora and fauna of such areas.

biogeographic provinces may also be defined which contain characteristic groups of species (faunistics).

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