Nj

Gómez, L. D. 1977. La biota bromelícola excepto anfibios y reptiles. Hist. Nat. Costa Rica 1: 45-62.

Laessle, A. M. 1961. A micro-limnological study of Jamaican bromeliads. Ecology 42: 499-517.

Murillo, R. M.,J. G. Palacios, J. M. Labougle, E. M. Hentschel, J. E. Llórente, K. Luna, P. Rojas, and S. Zamudio. 1983. Variación estacional de la entomofauna asociada a Tillandsia spp. en una zona de transición biótica. Southwest. Entomol. 8: 292-302.

Picado, C. 1913. Les broméliacées épiphytes considérée comme milieu biologique. Bull. Scient. France Belgique 47: 215-360.

Seifert, R. P. 1975. Clumps of Heliconia inflorescences as ecological islands. Ecology 56: 1416-1422.

Seifert, R. P. 1980. Mosquito fauna of Heliconia aurea. J. Anim. Ecol. 49: 687-697.

Seifert, R. P. 1981. Principal components analysis of biogeographic patterns among Heliconia insect communities. New York Entomol. Soc., J. 89: 109-122.

Seifert, R. P. 1982. Neotropical Heliconia insect communities. Quart. Rev. Biol. 57: 1-28.

Seifert, R. P., and F. H. Seifert. 1976a. Natural History of insects living in inflorescences of two species of Heliconia. New York Entomol. Soc., J. 84: 233-242.

Seifert, R. P., and F. H. Seifert. 19766. A community matrix analysis of Heliconia insect communities. Amer. Nat. 110: 461-483.

Seifert, R. P., and F. H. Seifert. 1979. A Heliconia insect community in a Venezuelan cloud forest. Ecology 60: 462-467.

Zavortink, T.J. 1985. Zinzala, a new subgenus of Wyeomyia with two new species from pitcher-plants in Venezuela (Diptera, Culici-dae, Sabethini). Wasmann J. Biol. 43: 46-59.

Miscellaneous Special Habitats

A few additional important special habitats that have been ignored or received minimal attention with regard to their entomo-faunal aspects in Latin America are the following.

1. Hot, mineral springs. De Oliveira (1954) noted ephydrid flies in the hot effluent of a geyser at El Tatio in Chile. Some general collections from Termas de Chillán in the same country have been identified by Ruiz and Stuardo (1935).

2. Inland salt lakes and playas, such as the immense salares of the Bolivian altiplano (Salar de Coipasa, Lago de Poopó, Salar de Uyuni). A few insects of hypersaline waters have been described, notably mosquitoes (Bach-mann and Casal 1963) and Corixidae of the genus Trichocorixa from Argentina {Bachmann 1979: 326f.) and the Mexican lakes, Texcoco and Ahuatle (see water boatmen, chap. 8). Ephydrid shore flies of the genus Dimecoenia (ecologically analogous to the Mexican and North American Ephydra) are abundant in these waters as well (de Oliveira 1958).

3. Streams. Entomological studies of lotic waters are numerous but not comprehensive and deal mostly with highland, hard-bottom streams (lilies 1964; Campos et al. 1984; Patrick and collabs. 1966; Turcotte and Harper 1982a, 19826). Adaptive strategies were studied on stream invertebrates, mostly insects in the Argentine Rio Negro, by Wais (1985).

4. Alpine ponds and lakes. Available are only the reports of Robeck et al. (1980) for miscellaneous Andean habitats and Gilson (1939) for Lake Titicaca.

5. Bogs. No published observations.

6. Deserts, both local and large, as the great Sonoran or Atacama. No apparent comprehensive observations.

7. Sand dunes, both coastal and inland desert. No apparent observations.

8. Inland freshwater swamps. No apparent observations.

9. Volcanoes. Old volcanoes may provide information on the effects of isolation on mountainous faunas (Palacios-Vargas 1985); dispersal and recolonization of new terrain will be demonstrated by insects and terrestrial arthropods found on new volcanoes, both at sea and on the continents. In both cases, the principles of island biogeography are applicable.

10. Guianan tepuis. The flat-topped jungle mesas of the Guiana Shield are acknowledged islands supporting many endemic biotic elements. They have been studied mostly by botanists, but some unique insects have been collected atop Mount Roraima and Cerro Neblina (Spangler 1981, 1985; Water-house 1900).

11. Lakes and rivers. Limnological studies, particularly of bodies of fresh water larger than streams, are numerous, but in these, more attention is usually paid to the macrofauna than to insects. Some works have concentrated on the latter (Wais 1984).

12. Land crab burrows. The burrows of tropica] coastal land crabs support a complex ecosystem, including many insects and related arthropods (Bright and Hogue 1972), most of which have aquatic life stages in the water that accumulates within them from rainfall and groundwater seepage.

13. Lava tubes. No apparent observations.

Also remaining to be elucidated are the entomological characteristics of the great number of vegetation types throughout the region, for example, cerrado, palm forests, caatinga, cloud forest, mangroves, grassland, puna, páramo (Bernal 1985), alpine, and savanna.

The foregoing are all fruitful fields of investigation for future students of ecological and biogeographic entomology.

References

Bachmann, A. O. 1979. Notas para una monografía de las Corixidae Argentinas (In-

secta, Heteroptera). Acta Zool. Lilloana 35: 305-350.

Bachmann, A. O., and O. H. Casal. 1963. Mosquitos Argentinos que crian en aguas salobres y saladas. Soc. Entomol. Argentina, Rev. 25: 21-27.

Bernal, A. 1985. Estudio comparativo de la artropofauna de un bosque alto-andino y de un pajonal paramuno en la región de Monserrate (Cund.). In H. Sturm and O. Rangel, Ecología de los paramos andinos: Una visión preliminar integrada. Univ. Nac. Colombia (lnst. Cien. Nat., Mus. Nat. Hist., Bibl. JoséJeronimo Triana no. 9). Bogotá. Pp. 225-260.

Bright, D. B., and C. L. Hogue. 1972. A synopsis of the burrowing land crabs of the world and list of their arthropod symbionts and burrow associates. Los Angeles Co. Mus. Nat. Hist., Contrib. Sei. 220: 1-58.

Campos, H., J. Arenas, C. Jara, T. Gonser, and R. Prins. 1984. Macrozoobentos y fauna lótica de las aguas limnéticas de Chiloé y Aysén continentales (Chile). Medio Ambiente 7: 52-64.

de Oliveira, S. J. 1954. Contribuido para o conhecimento do género "Dimecoenia" Cres-son, 1916. 1: "Dimecoenia lenti" sp. n. encontrado no Chile (Díptera, Ephydridae). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 14: 187-194.

de Oliveira, S. J. 1958. Contribuido para o conhecimento do género "Dimenia" Cresson, 1916. IV: Descri^áo da larva e do pupário de "Dimecoenia grumanni" Oliveira, 1954 (Dip-tera, Ephydridae). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 18: 167-169.

Gilson, H. C. 1939. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to Lake Titicaca in 1937. I: Description of the expedition. Linnean Soc. London, Trans. 1: 1—20.

Illies, J. 1964. The invertebrate fauna of the Huallaga, a Peruvian River, from the sources down to Tingo María. Intl. Verein Theor. Angew. Limnol., Verh. 15: 1077-1083.

Palacios-Vargas, J. 1985. Microartrópodos del Popocatépetl (aspectos ecológicos y biogeo-gráficos de los ácaros oribátidos e insectos colémbolos). Ph.D. diss., Univ. Nac. Aut. México, Mexico City.

Patrick, R., and collaborators. 1966. The Catherwood Foundation Peruvian-Amazon Expedition: Limnological and systematic studies. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, Monogr. 14: 1-495.

Robeck, S. S., L. Berner, O. S. Flint, Jr., N. Nieser, and P. J. Spangler. 1980. Results of the Catherwood Bolivian-Peruvian alti plano expedition. Pt. 1, Aquatic insects except Diptera. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. 132: 176-217.

Ruiz, F., and C. Stuardo O. 1935. lnsectos colectados en las Termas de Chilian. Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat. 39: 313-322.

Spangler, P.J. 1981. New and interesting water beetles from Mt. Roraima and Ptari-tepui, Venezuela (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae and Hy-drophilidae). Aquat. Ins. 3: 1-11.

Spangler, P. J. 1985. A new genus and species of riffle beetle, Neblinagena prima, from the Venezuelan tepui, Cerro de la Neblina (Coleoptera, Elmidae, Larinae). Entomol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 87: 538-544.

Turcotte, P., and P. P. Harper. 1982«. The macroinvertebrate fauna of a small Andean stream. Freshwater Biol. 12: 411-419.

Turcotte, P., and P. P. Harper. 19826. Drift patterns in a high andean stream. Hydro-biologia 89: 141-151.

Wais, 1. R. 1984. Two Patagonian basins— Negro (Argentina) and Valdivia (Chile)—as habitats for Plecoptera. Ann. Limnol. 20: 115-122.

Wais, I. R. 1985. Stratégies adaptatives aux eaux courantes des invertébrés du bassin du fleuve Negro, Patagonia, Argentina. Int. Verein. Limnol., Verh. 22: 2167-2172.

Waterhouse, C. O. 1900. Report on a collection made by Messrs. F. V. McConnell and J.J. Quelch at Mt. Roraima in British Guyana. Linnean Soc. London, Trans. 8: 74—76.

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