Other Scarabs

Males of several additional horned scarabs (Dynastinae) are renowned for their large size and elaborately developed horns. The black pan beetle (Enema pan), aside from its facetious name, is noteworthy for its enormity (BL 5 cm), tanklike shape, and forward-curving thoracic horn into whose apical fork a great head horn fits (fig. 9.10a). The great horned scarab (Megaceras jasoni = chorinaeus) is similar, but the base of the prothoracic projection is massive, with wide set apical horns (fig. 9.10b).

June or May beetles (jobotos, fogotos, gallinas degas), Melolonthinae, Melolon-thini, comprise an enormous assemblage (about 340 species, mostly in the genus Phyllophaga; fig. 9.10c) of nondescript, brown, medium-sized (BL 8—12 mm), ovoid scarabs, familiar everywhere around electric lights on warm nights and on the leaves of many kipds of plants. Their larvae ("white grubs") attack the roots of their hosts, often graminaceous plants such as sugarcane, corn, and sorghum (King 1985).

Cockchafers (Macrodaclylus; fig. 9.10c!) are also melolonthines and well-known depredators of plants. Many of the approximately ninety species feed as adults on crops and ornamentals (especially grapes, roses, coffee, citrus). They are recognized by their long, spiny legs, bearing oversized tarsal claws. Their larvae, like those of other scarabs, are subterranean feeders on the roots of the adult hosts.

Figure 9.10 SCARAB (SCARABAEIDAE) AND WOOD BORING (BUPRESTIDAE) BEETLES.

(a) Pan beetle (Enema pan), male, (b) Great horned scarab (Megacerus jasoni), male, (c) June beetle (Phyllophaga portiricencis). (d) Cockchafer (Macrodactylus sp.). (e) Giant metallic ceiba borer (Euchroma gigantea, Buprestidae).

Figure 9.10 SCARAB (SCARABAEIDAE) AND WOOD BORING (BUPRESTIDAE) BEETLES.

(a) Pan beetle (Enema pan), male, (b) Great horned scarab (Megacerus jasoni), male, (c) June beetle (Phyllophaga portiricencis). (d) Cockchafer (Macrodactylus sp.). (e) Giant metallic ceiba borer (Euchroma gigantea, Buprestidae).

Platel. LATIN AMERICAN INSECTS.

a. b.

a. Tarantula (undetermined arboreal species)

b. Broad-winged leaf katydid (Pterochroza ocellata) in threat posture (photograph by James L. Castner)

c. Eumastacid grasshopper (Eumastaxsp.)

d. Stinkbug (Edessa sp., Pentatomidae)

e. f.

e. Dragon-headed bug (Fulgora laternaria)

f. Termites swarming on the ground, probably Syntermes sp.

g. Tiger beetle (Megacephala sp.)

h. Giant metallic ceiba wood borer (Euchroma gigantea)

Plate 2. LATIN AMERICAN INSECTS.

a. Harlequin beetle (Acrocinus longimanus) (photograph by George Dodge)

b. Tortoise beetle (Cyclosoma mirabilis)

c. Window-winged saturnian (Rothschildia erycina)

d. Larva of eyed saturnian, Automeris (photograph by George Dodge)

e. Larva of undetermined tiger moth (Arctiidae) (photograph by James N. Hogue)

f. Achilles morpho (Morpho achillaena)

g. Larva of owl butterfly (Caligo sp.)

h. Bivouac of colony of the army ant, Eciton hamatum

a. "Tamshi." Dinoponera gigantea killed by fungal infection. Fruiting bodies of fungus fully developed.

b. Kelep ant (Ectatomma tuberculatum) tending extrafloral nectary of Inga sp.

c. Formicarium of Cordia sp. housing a colony of aztec ants (Azteca sp.)

d. Aposematically colored nymph of unidentified assassin bug

e. Viper worm (Hemeroplanes ornatus) in threatening posture (photograph by George Dodge)

f. Mullerian mimicry cluster of moths and butterflies with "tiger" pattern. Left to right—top row: Che-tone angulosa (Arctiidae, Pericopinae), Dismorphia amphiona (Pieridae), Castnia sp. (Castniidae); middle row: Lycorea halia (Nymphalidae, Danainae), Papilio zagreus (Papilionidae), Consul fabius (Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae); Melinaea ethra (Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae), Eresia phillyra (Nymphalidae, Nymphalinae), Heliconius ismenius (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)

g. Broad-winged katydid leaf mimic (undetermined species)

h. Cyclocephala (Scarabaeidae) pollinator in flower of Victoria amazónica

a. Arboreal nest of nasute termite (Nasutitermes sp.)

b. Social sphecid nest (Microstigmus comes)

c. Paper wasp nest (Polybia sp.) (photograph by George Dodge)

d. Paper wasp nest (Polybia scutellaris)

e. Nest of bell wasp (Chartergus chartarius)

f. Parasol wasp nest (Apoica pattens)

g. Aztec ant nests (Azteca trigona) associated with nests of the yellow-rumped cacique h. Ant garden

Reference

King, A. B. S. 1985. Factors affecting infestation by larvae of Phyllophaga spp. (Coleóptera: Scarabaeidae) in Costa Rica. Bull. Entomol. Res. 75: 417-427.

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