Although the long-range attraction mechanisms discussed above reduce the number of species present at a prospective mating site, generally there remains an excess of potential partners. Further discrimination among species and conspecific individuals usually takes place. Courtship is the close-range, intersexual behavior that induces sexual receptivity prior to (and often during) mating and acts as a mechanism for species recognition. During courtship, one or both sexes seek to facilitate insemination and fertilization by influencing the other's behavior.

Courtship may include visual displays, predominantly by males, including movements of adorned parts of the body, such as antennae, eyestalks, and "picture" wings, and ritualized movements ("dancing"). Tactile stimulation such as rubbing and stroking often occurs later in courtship, often immediately prior to mating, and may continue during copulation. Antennae, palps, head horns, external genitalia, and legs are used in tactile stimulation. Acoustic courtship and mating recognition systems are common in many insects (e.g. Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Plecoptera). Insects such as crickets, which use long-range calling, may have different calls for use in close-range courtship. Others, such as fruit or vinegar flies (Drosophila), have no long-distance call and sing (by wing vibration) only in close-up courtship. In some predatory insects, including empidid flies and mecopterans, the male courts a prospective mate by offering a prey item as a nuptial gift (Fig. 5.1; Box 5.1).

If the sequence of display proceeds correctly, courtship grades into mating. Sometimes the sequence need not be completed before copulation commences. On other occasions courtship must be prolonged and repeated. It may be unsuccessful if one sex fails to respond or makes inappropriate responses. Generally, members of different species differ in some elements of their courtships and interspecies matings do not occur. The great specificity and complexity of insect courtship behaviors can be interpreted in terms of mate location, synchronization, and species recognition, and viewed as having evolved as a premating isolating mechanism. Important as this view is, there is equally compelling evidence that courtship is an extension of a wider phenomenon of competitive communication and involves sexual selection.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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