Endocrine centers

The hormones of the insect body are produced by neuronal, neuroglandular, or glandular centers (Fig. 3.8). Hormonal production by some organs, such as the ovaries, is secondary to their main function, but several tissues and organs are specialized for an endocrine role.

Fig. 3.8 The main endocrine centers in a generalized insect. (After Novak 1975.)

Neurosecretory cells

Neurosecretory cells (also called neuroendocrine cells) are modified neurons found throughout the nervous system (within the CNS, peripheral nervous system, and the stomodeal nervous system), but they occur in major groups in the brain. These cells produce most of the known insect hormones, the notable exceptions being the production by non-neural tissues of ecdys-teroids and juvenile hormones. However, the synthesis and release of the latter hormones are regulated by neurohormones from neurosecretory cells.

Corpora cardiaca

The corpora cardiaca (singular: corpus cardiacum) are a pair of neuroglandular bodies located on either side of the aorta and behind the brain. As well as

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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