Further Reading

Austin, A.D. & Browning, T.O. (1981) A mechanism for movement of eggs along insect ovipositors. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 10, 93-108. Choe, J.C. & Crespi, B.J. (eds) (1997) The Evolution of Mating Systems in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Eberhard, W.G. (1994) Evidence for widespread courtship during copulation in 131 species of insects and spiders, and implications for cryptic female choice. Evolution 48, 711-33. Eberhard, W.G. (2004) Male-female conflict and genitalia: failure to confirm predictions in insects and spiders. Biological Reviews 79, 121-86. Emlen, D.F.J. (2001) Costs and diversification of exaggerated animal structures. Science 291, 1534-6. Emlen, D.F. (2008) The evolution of animal weapons. Annual

Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 39, 387-413. Gillott, C. (2003) Male accessory gland secretions: modulators of female reproductive physiology and behavior. Annual Review ofEntomology 48, 163-84. Gwynne, D.T. (2001) Katydids and Bush-Crickets: Reproductive Behavior and Evolution of the Tettigoniidae. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

Gwynne, D.T. (2008) Sexual conflict over nuptial gifts in insects. Annual Review ofEntomology 53, 83-101.

Heimpel, G.E. & de Boer, J.G. (2008) Sex determination in the Hymenoptera. Annual Review ofEntomology 53, 209-30.

Heming, B.-S. (2003) Insect Development and Evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Judson, O. (2002) Dr Tatiana's Advice to All Creation. The Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex. Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt & Co., New York.

Leather, S.R. & Hardie, J. (eds) (1995) Insect Reproduction. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Mikkola, K. (1992) Evidence for lock-and-key mechanisms in the internal genitalia of the Apamea moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Systematic Entomology 17, 145-53.

Normark, B.B. (2003) The evolution of alternative genetic systems in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 48, 397-423.

Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (eds) (2009) Encyclopedia of Insects, 2nd edn. Elsevier, San Diego, CA. (In particular, see articles on: mating behaviors; parthenogenesis; polyembryony;

puddling behavior; four chapters on reproduction; sex determination; sexual selection; Wolbachia.)

Shapiro, A.M. & Porter, A.H. (1989) The lock-and-key hypothesis: evolutionary and biosystematic interpretation of insect genitalia. Annual Review ofEntomology 34, 231-45.

Simmons, L.W. (2001) Sperm Competition and its Evolutionary Consequences in the Insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Siva-Jothy, M.T. (2006) Trauma, disease and collateral damage: conflict in mirids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences 361, 269-75.

Sota, T. & Kubota, K. (1998) Genital lock-and-key as a selective agent against hybridization. Evolution 52, 1507-13.

Werren, J.H., Baldo, L. & Clark, M.E. (2008) Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6, 741-51.

Vahed, K. (2007) All that glitters is not gold: sensory bias, sexual conflict and nuptial feeding in insects and spiders. Ethology 113, 105-27.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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