Further Reading

Binnington, K. & Retnakaran, A. (eds) (1991) Physiology of the Insect Epidermis. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne. Carroll, S.B. (1995) Homeotic genes and the evolution of arthropods and chordates. Nature 376,479-85. Carroll, S.B. (2008) Evo-devo and an expanding evolutionary synthesis: a genetic theory of morphological evolution. Cell 134, 25-36.

Chown, S.L. & Terblanche, J.S. (2006) Physiological diversity in insects: ecological and evolutionary contexts. Advances in Insect Physiology 33, 50-152. Daly, H.V. (1985) Insect morphometrics. Annual Review of

Entomology 30,415-38. Danks, H.V. (ed.) (1994) Insect Life Cycle Polymorphism: Theory, Evolution and Ecological Consequences for Seasonality and Diapause Control. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. Dingle, H. (1996) Migration. The Biology of Life on the Move.

Oxford University Press, New York. Dingle, H. (2002) Hormonal mediation of insect life histories. In: Hormones, Brain and Behavior, vol. 3, (eds D.W. Pfaff, A.P. Arnold, A.E. Etgen, S.E. Fahrbach & R.T. Rubin), pp. 237-79. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Hayes, E.J. & Wall, R. (1999) Age-grading adult insects: a review of techniques. Physiological Entomology 24, 1-10.

Heming, B.-S. (2003) Insect Development and Evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Memmott, J., Craze, P.G., Waser, N.M. & Price, M.V. (2007) Global warming and the disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. Ecology Letters 10, 710-7.

Nijhout, H.F. (1999) Control mechanisms of polyphenic development in insects. BioScience 49, 181-92.

Nijhout, H.F., Davidowitz, G. & Roff, D.A. (2006) A quantitative analysis of the mechanism that controls body size in Manduca sexta. Journal of Biology 5, 1-16.

Parmesan, C. (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37, 637-69.

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C. et al. (1999) Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399, 579-83.

Prud'homme, B., Gompel, N. & Carroll, S.B. (2007) Emerging principles of regulatory evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences USA 104, 8605-12.

Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (eds) (2009) Encyclopedia of Insects, 2nd edn. Elsevier, San Diego, CA. (In particular, see articles on: aestivation; cold/heat protection; development, hormonal control of; diapause; embryogenesis; greenhouse gases, global warming, and insects; growth, individual; imaginal discs; metamorphosis; migration; molting; segmentation; thermoregulation.)

Simpson, S.J., Sword, G.A. & De Loof, A. (2005) Advances, controversies and consensus in locust phase polymorphism research. Journal of Orthoptera Research 14, 21322.

Sutherst, R.W. & Maywald, G.F. (1985) A computerized system for matching climates in ecology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 13, 281-99.

Suzuki, Y. & Nijhout, H.F. (2008) Genetic basis of adaptive evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation. Journal ofEvolutionary Biology 21, 57-66.

Worner, S.P. (1988) Ecoclimatic assessment of potential establishment of exotic pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 81, 9731-83.

Papers and references in European Journal of Entomology (1996) 93(3), especially: Bale, J.S., Insect cold hardiness: a matter of life and death (pp. 369-82); Lee, R.E., Costanzo, J.P. & Mugano, J.A., Regulation of supercooling and ice nucleation in insects (pp. 405-18).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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